T cells

SARS-CoV-2-specific T Cells

Phase of research

Potential treatment - pre-clinical evidence

How it helps


Drug status

Used to treat other disease

Supporting references
Contradictory references
AI-suggested references
Clinical trials

General information

T lymphocyte cells are one of the important white blood cells of the immune system and play a central role in the adaptive immune response. Groups of specific, differentiated T cell subtypes, such as helper, cytotoxic, memory, and regulatory T (Treg) cells, have a variety of important functions in controlling and shaping the immune response. Memory T cells do appear when T cells recognize a pathogen presented by their local antigen-presenting cells. These T cells activate, proliferate, and differentiate into effector cells secreting compounds to control the infection. Once the pathogen has been cleared, most of the antigen-specific T cells disappear, and a pool of heterogeneous long-lived memory T cells persists. This population of memory T cells, defined as CD45RA or CD45RO+, is maintained over time conferring rapid and long-term immune protection against subsequent reinfections.

Several clinical trials also study the potential of Treg cells in the treatment of conditions including autoimmune diseases, transplant rejection, or graft-versus-host disease (Raffin et al., 2019). The potential of Treg cells in COVID-19 adoptive therapy is being explored, as well.

Current research shows the presence of a SARS-CoV-2 specific T cell population within CD45RA memory T cells from the blood of convalescent donors that can be easily, effectively, and rapidly isolated. These specific SARS-CoV-2 memory T cells may be able to clear virally infected cells and confer T cell immunity for subsequent reinfections. These cells can be stored for use in moderate and severe cases of COVID-19 patients requiring hospitalization, thereby representing an off-the-shelf living drug.

T cells on Wikipedia.

On September 17, 2020, AlloVir, a late clinical-stage cell therapy company, announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has cleared the Investigational New Drug application (IND) for ALVR109, an allogeneic, off-the-shelf virus-specific T cell therapy candidate designed to target SARS-CoV-2. ALVR109 is being developed to arrest the progression of COVID-19 by eradicating SARS-CoV-2 virus-infected cells.


T lymphocytes; T-cells; T memory cells; adoptive cellular therapy; adoptive cell therapy


Supporting references

Link Tested on Impact factor Notes Publication date
SARS-CoV-2–specific T cells are rapidly expanded for therapeutic use and target conserved regions of the membrane protein
Cell-based therapy Adoptive cell therapy
in vitro 17.54

This study shows that SARS-CoV-2 directed T-cell immunotherapy targeting structural proteins, most importantly membrane protein, should be feasible for the prevention or early treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection in immunocompromised patients with blood disorders or after bone marrow transplantation to achieve antiviral control while mitigating uncontrolled inflammation.

SARS-CoV-2-Specific Memory T Lymphocytes From COVID-19 Convalescent Donors: Identification, Biobanking, and Large-Scale Production for Adoptive Cell Therapy
Cell-based therapy Adoptive cell therapy
in vitro 5.18

In this study, we report the presence of a SARS-CoV-2 specific T-cell population within CD45RA memory T cells from the blood of convalescent donors that can be easily, effectively, and rapidly isolated by CD45RA depletion. These specific SARS-CoV-2 CD45RA memory T cells may be able to clear virally infected cells and confer T-cell immunity for subsequent reinfections. These cells can be stored for use in moderate and severe cases of COVID-19 patients requiring hospitalization, thereby representing an off-the-shelf living drug.

Rapid production of clinical‐grade SARS‐CoV‐2 specific T cells
Cell-based therapy Adoptive cell therapy
Theory only

High frequencies of rapid antigen-reactive T cells were found in convalescent donors, regardless of severity of COVID-19. The feasibility of clinical-grade production of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells overnight for therapeutics and diagnostics is revealed.

Rapid GMP-Compliant Expansion of SARS-CoV-2–Specific T Cells From Convalescent Donors for Use as an Allogeneic Cell Therapy for COVID-19
Cell-based therapy Adoptive cell therapy
in vitro 6.43

Donations from individuals who have been infected with SARS-CoV-2 with mild symptoms and have recovered retain normal T cell compartment profiles, with CD4 and CD8 memory and effector T cells specific for SARS-CoV-2 spike, nucleocapsid and membrane antigens. These virus-specific T cells (VSTs) can be isolated using Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)-compatible selection technology and rapidly expanded in vitro using closed culture vessels and GMP-compliant reagents and medium. The mononuclear cell fraction of a single whole blood donation from a COVID-19 convalescent donor (CCD) can be used to generate up to 1011 T cells within 21 days with the desired central memory phenotype as a potential new therapy for SARS-CoV-2. This offers the potential for the manufacture of a bank of HLA-matched donor T cell products for use in clinical trial and future treatment of COVID-19 patients.

Using Allogeneic, Off-the-Shelf, Sars-Cov-2-Specific T Cells to Treat High Risk Patients with COVID-19
in vitro

SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells generated from convalescent individuals are Th1-polarized, polyfunctional and selectively able to kill viral antigen-expressing targets with no auto- or alloreactivity, indicative of both their selectivity and safety for clinical use.

Harnessing HLA‐E‐restricted CD8 T lymphocytes for adoptive cell therapy of patients with severe COVID‐19
Cell-based therapy Adoptive cell therapy
Theory only 5.52

HLA-restricted and SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8 T cells could be rapidly and cost-effectively prepared in large numbers from COVID-19 convalescent allogeneic donors, banked and used immediately upon request for patients with severe COVID-19.

Generation of glucocorticoid-resistant SARS-CoV-2 T cells for adoptive cell therapy
Spike protein Cell-based therapy Adoptive cell therapy In vitro Mixed substance
SARS-CoV-2 PepMix-loaded autologous PBMCs; COVID-19-recovered patients' peripheral blood (source) 9.42

SARS-CoV-2-reactive T cells (stimulated with a peptide library derived from various SARS-CoV-2 proteins) were isolated from the peripheral blood of convalescent COVID-19 patients and expanded in culture with IL-2/4/7. A gene knock-out rendering the cells resistant to glucocorticoids was introduced. The cells manifested Th1 cytotoxic phenotype and SARS-CoV-2 PepMix-loaded autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells-killing capacity in vitro. The T cells were directed mostly against Spike protein. 

Adoptive transfer of ex vivo expanded SARS-CoV-2-specific cytotoxic lymphocytes: A viable strategy for COVID-19 immunosuppressed patients?
Cell-based therapy Adoptive cell therapy In vitro Mixed substance
in vitro; COVID-19-recovered patients' peripheral blood (source) 2.23

SARS-CoV-2 peptide-responsive T cells were expanded from peripheral blood samples of COVID-19 convalescent patients. The cells were proposed for the use in adoptive cell therapy of COVID-19. 

Vaccinated and Convalescent Donor–Derived Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2–Specific T Cells as Adoptive Immunotherapy for High-Risk Coronavirus Disease 2019 Patients
Spike protein Spike variant Cell-based therapy Adoptive cell therapy In vitro Mixed substance
in vitro; Vaccinated individuals or COVID-19 convalescent patients (T cell donors) 9.08

SARS-CoV-2 Spike-responsive T cells were expanded from peripheral blood samples of vaccinated (BNT162b2) or COVID-19 convalescent patients (recovered from symptomatic but not critical illness). Using the cell products lysis was successfully induced in a cytotoxicity assay against autologous antigen-pulsed phytohemagglutinin blasts. The T cells responded to stimulation by B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 variant peptides, as well. 

Identification of cross-reactive CD8+ T cell receptors with high functional avidity to a SARS-CoV-2 immunodominant epitope and its natural mutant variants
Nucleocapsid protein Cell-based therapy Adoptive cell therapy In vitro Mixed substance
In vitro 7.10

A CD8+ T cell epitope on SARS-CoV-2 N protein mediating a robust T cell response was identified. This knowledge was suggested to be utilized in T cell-based adoptive therapy of COVID-19. 

Phase I dose-escalation single centre clinical trial to evaluate the safety of infusion of memory T cells as adoptive therapy in COVID-19 (RELEASE)
Severe severity Cell-based therapy Adoptive cell therapy Non-randomized non-controlled open trial Phase I clinical trial Moderate severity Mixed substance
Moderate to severe COVID-19 patients

SARS-CoV-2-specific CD45RA− memory T cell administration was followed by stabilisation of inflammatory markers. Serious adverse reactions were not observed and clinical improvement (based on an ordinal scale) was noted. Sample size: 3 (low) + 3 (intermediate) + 3 (high). Dosage: 1 × 10^5 cells/kg (low) or 5 × 10^5 cells/kg (intermediate) or 1 × 10^6 cells/kg (high). Main outcome: Safety.

Effective chimeric antigen receptor T cells against SARS-CoV-2
Spike protein Cell-based therapy Adoptive cell therapy Animal model In vitro Antibody Mixed substance
human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (donor material for T cell isolation); Jurkat cells; 293-hACE2(-RBD) cells; NOD-SCID IL2Rγnull mice 5.46

Modified T calls expressing a chimeric antigen receptor derived from the CR3022 antibody were prepared. The target antigen (S1 RBD peptide) activated the cells in vitro and led to interferon-γ, granzyme B/perforin, or FasL production in the CD69+ subset of cells. The CAR-T cells effectively killed target cells coated with RBD or S1 antigens in vitro and also S1-expressing cells in a murine model. 

SARS-CoV-2–specific T cells are rapidly expanded for therapeutic use and target conserved regions of the membrane protein
Spike protein Envelope protein Nucleocapsid protein Cell-based therapy Adoptive cell therapy In vitro Mixed substance
In vitro observations-based theory only 22.11

T cells recognizing SARS-CoV-2 antigens were successfully expanded (also) from sera of COVID-19 convalescent patients. Multiple CD4-restricted viral epitopes in conserved Spike, Envelope and Nucleocapsid proteins of SARS-CoV-2 were identified. Thus, T cell therapy (after proper MHC matching) was hypothesized to be used as a prevention or an early treatment in immunocompromised patients. 

ALVR109, an off-the-shelf partially HLA matched SARS-CoV-2–specific T cell therapy, to treat refractory severe COVID-19 pneumonia in a heart transplant patient: Case report
ARDS Adoptive cell therapy Case report Mixed substance
An immunosuppressed heart transplant recipient with ARDS 8.09

The treatment was safe. The administration of the formulation was followed by decrease (with some variability) of viral loads and alleviation of symptoms (with pulmonary functions not completely returning to the baseline status). Corticosteroid dosing was intentionally lowered during the T cell therapy course. Sample size: 1. Dosage: 2×10^7 cells once every 14 ± 4 days (3 doses total). 

Regulatory T Cells for Treating Patients With COVID-19 and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Two Case Reports
ARDS Severe severity Cell-based therapy Adoptive cell therapy Case report Mixed substance
ARDS patients 25.39

Infusions of regularory T cells from cord blood (expanded in vitro) were followed by a decrease in markers of inflammation. The treated patients recovered, although other procedures might had contributed to this outcome. Sample size: 2. Dosage: 2–3 doses of 10^8 cells 3 or 4 days apart. 

Piecewise differentiation of the fractional order CAR-T cells-SARS-2 virus model
Cell-based therapy Adoptive cell therapy Mixed substance In silico
In silico 4.48

Modified T cells expressing a chimeric antigenic receptor were mathematically modelled to target SARS-CoV-2. 

Rapid Manufacturing of Highly Cytotoxic Clinical-Grade SARS-CoV-2-specific T Cell Products Covering SARS-CoV-2 and Its Variants for Adoptive T Cell Therapy
Cell-based therapy Adoptive cell therapy In vitro Mixed substance
In vitro cytotoxicity assay 5.89

Anti-SARS-CoV-2 T cells were identified in convalescent sera using virus-specific peptides. The cells were shown to be able to replicate and displayed targeted cytotoxic activity in vitro. 

SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells generated for adoptive immunotherapy are capable of recognizing multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants
Spike protein Spike variant Cell-based therapy Adoptive cell therapy In vitro Mixed substance
In vitro; HEK293-ACE2/TMPRSS2 cells; HEK293 cells (pulsed with SARS-CoV-2 antigens) 6.82

Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from COVID-19 convalescent individuals were used for expansion of T cells responding to SARS-CoV-2 antigen stimulation. The T cells displayed cytotoxicity against HLA-matched cells producing SARS-CoV-2 antigens. In vitro experiments suggest efficacy against alpha and beta strains and epitope conservation suggests efficacy against gamma and delta strains. Amino acid changes were noted for selected epitopes in Omicron strain. 

Isolation of Functional SARS-CoV-2 Antigen-Specific T-Cells with Specific Viral Cytotoxic Activity for Adoptive Therapy of COVID-19
Membrane protein Cell-based therapy Adoptive cell therapy In vitro Mixed substance
In vitro; HEK293T cells (expressing SARS-CoV-2 M protein) 6.08

T cells isolated from blood of convalescent and vaccinated individuals (BNT162b2) were expanded (using SARS-CoV-2 M protein stimulation) in vitro. The T cells displayed cytotoxicity against cells producing SARS-CoV-2 M protein. 


Tacrolimus-resistant SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell products to prevent and treat severe COVID-19 in immunosuppressed patients
Spike protein Membrane protein Spike variant Cell-based therapy Adoptive cell therapy In vitro Mixed substance
In vitro; autologous lymphoblastoid cell lines 6.69

T cells reactive to SARS-CoV-2 antigens were selected from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from COVID-19 convalescent donors. The T cells were shown to have cytotoxic activity against SARS-CoV-2 antigen producing cells in vitro even after the T cells were genetically made to be tacrolimus resistant (this property was introduced for a potential use of the therapy in solid organ transplant patients). The T cells responded to S1 and S2 derived peptides from Alpha, Beta, Delta, and Omicron variants. 

Virus Induced Lymphocytes (VIL) as a novel viral antigen-specific T cell therapy for COVID-19 and potential future pandemics
Spike protein Cell-based therapy Adoptive cell therapy In vitro Mixed substance
In vitro 4.38

T cells reactive to SARS-CoV-2 antigens were selected and expanded from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from COVID-19 convalescent donors using artificial antigen presenting cells. The T cells responded to SARS-CoV-2. 

Off-the-Shelf Partial HLA Matching SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Specific T Cell Therapy: A New Possibility for COVID-19 Treatment
Spike protein Nucleocapsid protein Membrane protein Cell-based therapy Adoptive cell therapy In vitro Mixed substance
In vitro 7.56

T cells reactive to SARS-CoV-2 antigens were selected and expanded from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from COVID-19 convalescent donors. The T cells displayed antigen specificity for SARS-CoV-2. 

Haploidentical CD3+ TCR αβ/CD19+–depleted HSCT for MHC class II deficiency and persistent SARS-CoV-2 pneumonitis
Spike protein RdRpol Cell-based therapy Adoptive cell therapy Protein factor Children Small molecule Case report Antibody Mixed substance
An immunodeficient juvenile patient 10.79

In a juvenile patient experiencing severe immunodeficiency after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and COVID-19, decrease in viral load, expansion of CD3 lymphocytes and clinical/radiological improvement were observed after treatment with CD45RO+ memory T cells, remdesivir, and regdanvimab. Sample size: 1. Dosage: 10^6 cells/kg. 

Targeting SARS-CoV-2 infection through CAR-T-like bispecific T cell engagers incorporating ACE2
Spike protein Spike variant Cell-based therapy Adoptive cell therapy Novel compound In vitro Antibody Mixed substance
293 cells; ACE2-expressing 293 cells; Spike-expressing 293 cells; T2 cells; Spike/GFP co-expressing T2 cells; primary human T cells; SARS-CoV-2 Spike-pseudotyped virus (wild type; Delta, Omicron) 6.16

Engineered CD8 T cells expressing ACE2-derived chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) and anti-CD3 scFv (termed “ACE2-Bite”) neutralized SARS-CoV-2 (including Delta and Omicron) and targeted infected cells in vitro. The T cells did not display off-target cytotoxicity. 


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Effects of Short-Term Low-Dose Glucocorticoids for Patients with Mild COVID-19.
Mesenchymal stem cell immunomodulation: In pursuit of controlling COVID-19 related cytokine storm
Reactive T Cells in Convalescent COVID-19 Patients With Negative SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Serology.
SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein-reactive T cells can be readily expanded from COVID-19 vaccinated donors
Targeting chronic COVID-19 lung injury; Tofacitinib can be used against tissue-resident memory T cells.
Immune Response in Moderate to Critical Breakthrough COVID-19 Infection After mRNA Vaccination
SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses after COVID-19 recovery in patients with rheumatic diseases on immunosuppressive therapy.
Cleaning and disinfection in health care settings during the COVID-19 outbreak.
Synthetic SARS-CoV-2 Spike-Based DNA Vaccine Elicits Robust and Long-Lasting Th1 Humoral and Cellular Immunity in Mice
Lack of Induction of RBD-Specific Neutralizing Antibodies despite Repeated Heterologous SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination Leading to Seroconversion and Establishment of T Cell-Specific Memory in a Patient in Remission of Multiple Myeloma
Simultaneous CD8+ T-Cell Immune Response against SARS-Cov-2 S, M, and N Induced by Endogenously Engineered Extracellular Vesicles in Both Spleen and Lungs.
Brief report: Tempol, a novel antioxidant, inhibits both activated T cell and antigen presenting cell derived cytokines in-vitro from COVID-19 patients.
Analysis of TCR Repertoire by High-Throughput Sequencing Indicates the Feature of T Cell Immune Response after SARS-CoV-2 Infection
Changes in the immune response against SARS-CoV-2 in individuals with severe COVID-19 treated with high dose of vitamin D
Proteins from SARS-CoV-2 reduce T cell proliferation: A mirror image of sepsis.
Antibody responses to the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in individuals with various Inborn Errors of Immunity
CCR2 Regulates Vaccine-Induced Mucosal T-Cell Memory to Influenza A Virus.
Preclinical development of a molecular clamp-stabilised subunit vaccine for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.
Generation of potent cellular and humoral immunity against SARS-CoV-2 antigens via conjugation to a polymeric glyco-adjuvant.
A single dose of SARS-CoV-2 FINLAY-FR-1A vaccine enhances neutralization response in COVID-19 convalescents, with a very good safety profile: An open-label phase 1 clinical trial
B and T cell immune responses elicited by the Comirnaty COVID-19 vaccine in nursing home residents
T cell response to intact SARS-CoV-2 includes coronavirus cross-reactive and variant-specific components
Rapid and stable mobilization of CD8+ T cells by SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine
Reduced immune response to inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in a cohort of immunocompromised patients in Chile
Immune Response to SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine in 2 Men
Differential immunogenicity of homologous versus heterologous boost in Ad26.COV2.S vaccine recipients
Picture of the Favourable Immune Profile Induced by Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination.
The ROMANOV study found impaired humoral and cellular immune responses to SARSCov-2 mRNA vaccine in virus unexposed patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis.
SARS-CoV-2 spreads to lymph nodes and strongly expands CD4+ TEMRA cells in a patient with mild COVID-19
Integrated hepatic single-cell RNA sequencing and untargeted metabolomics reveals the immune and metabolic modulation of Qing-Fei-Pai-Du decoction in mice with coronavirus-induced pneumonia.
SARS-CoV-2 specific memory T cell epitopes identified in COVID-19-recovered subjects.
Intranasal Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 Immunization with Lipid Adjuvants Provides Systemic and Mucosal Immune Response against SARS-CoV-2 S1 Spike and Nucleocapsid Protein
Haemorrhagic ulcerative duodenitis in a patient with COVID-19 infection: clinical improvement following treatment with budesonide
CD8+ T-Cell Epitope Variations Suggest a Potential Antigen HLA-A2 Binding Deficiency for Spike Protein of SARS-CoV-2
Comparative Immunomodulatory Evaluation of the Receptor Binding Domain of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein; a Potential Vaccine Candidate Which Imparts Potent Humoral and Th1 Type Immune Response in a Mouse Model.
Screening HLA-A-restricted T cell epitopes of SARS-CoV-2 and the induction of CD8+ T cell responses in HLA-A transgenic mice
Limited T cell response to SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine among patients with cancer receiving different cancer treatments
The peripheral blood immune cell profile in a teriflunomide-treated multiple sclerosis patient with COVID-19 pneumonia
Applying high throughput and comprehensive immunoinformatics approaches to design a trivalent subunit vaccine for induction of immune response against emerging human coronaviruses SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2
Persistently reduced humoral and sustained cellular immune response from first to third SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination in anti-CD20-treated multiple sclerosis patients
Therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells and their exosomes in severe novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases
Specific CD8+ TCR Repertoire Recognizing Conserved Antigens of SARS-CoV-2 in Unexposed Population: A Prerequisite for Broad-Spectrum CD8+ T Cell Immunity
SARS-CoV-2 T Cell Response in Severe and Fatal COVID-19 in Primary Antibody Deficiency Patients Without Specific Humoral Immunity
Time-course analysis reveals that corticosteroids resuscitate diminished CD8+ T cells in COVID-19: a retrospective cohort study
Evaluation of the QuantiFERON SARS-CoV-2 assay to assess cellular immunogenicity of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine in individuals with low and high humoral response
Immunogenicity of BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine and SARS-CoV-2 infection in lung transplant recipients.
Influence of Aerosol Delivered BCG Vaccination on Immunological and Disease Parameters Following SARS-CoV-2 Challenge in Rhesus Macaques.
Reduced T Cell and Antibody Responses to Inactivated Coronavirus Vaccine Among Individuals Above 55 Years Old
The Effects of Heterologous Immunization with Prime-Boost COVID-19 Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2
GB-2 inhibits ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression: In vivo and in vitro studies
Localized and Systemic Immune Responses against SARS-CoV-2 Following Mucosal Immunization
Secretory IgA and T cells targeting SARS-CoV-2 spike protein are transferred to the breastmilk upon mRNA vaccination
Disruption of Adaptive Immunity Enhances Disease in SARS-CoV-2-Infected Syrian Hamsters
The ORF8 protein of SARS-CoV-2 mediates immune evasion through down-regulating MHC-Iota
Engineering a self-navigated MnARK nanovaccine for inducing potent protective immunity against novel coronavirus.
Azithromycin in viral infections
High Dose Intravenous Vitamin C for Preventing The Disease Aggravation of Moderate COVID-19 Pneumonia. A Retrospective Propensity Matched Before-After Study.
Cross-reactive memory T cells associate with protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection in COVID-19 contacts
COVID-19 convalescent plasma composition and immunological effects in severe patients.
In-depth analysis of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells reveals diverse differentiation hierarchies in vaccinated individuals
Long Term Immune Response Produced by the SputnikV Vaccine
Single-cell profiling of T and B cell repertoires following SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine
Immunisation of ferrets and mice with recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike protein formulated with Advax-SM adjuvant protects against COVID-19 infection.
TREM-2 is a sensor and activator of T cell response in SARS-CoV-2 infection
Serology-based therapeutic strategy in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients
SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination trigger long-lived B and CD4+ T lymphocytes with implications for booster strategies
The Humoral Immune Response to BNT162b2 Vaccine Is Associated With Circulating CD19+ B Lymphocytes and the Naive CD45RA to Memory CD45RO CD4+ T Helper Cells Ratio in Hemodialysis Patients and Kidney Transplant Recipients
Prolonged Protective Immunity Induced by Mild SARS-CoV-2 Infection of K18-hACE2 Mice
Impact on HIV-1 RNA Levels and Antibody Responses Following SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination in HIV-Infected Individuals
Limited induction of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses in children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome compared with COVID-19
Identification and characterization of a SARS-CoV-2 specific CD8+ T cell response with immunodominant features
Pre-existing polymerase-specific T cells expand in abortive seronegative SARS-CoV-2
The effect of age on the magnitude and longevity of Th1-directed CD4 T-cell responses to SARS-CoV-2
Molecular docking and dynamic simulation of conserved B cell epitope of SARS-CoV-2 glycoprotein Indonesian isolates: an immunoinformatic approach
Imiquimod - A toll like receptor 7 agonist - Is an ideal option for management of COVID 19.
Three Specific Potential Epitopes That Could Be Recognized by T Cells of Convalescent COVID-19 Patients Were Identified From Spike Protein
Cellular and Humoral Immune Responses in Mice Immunized with Vaccinia Virus Expressing the SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein.
Differences in SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine Response Dynamics Between Class-I- and Class-II-Specific T-Cell Receptors in Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Fusion Protein of Rotavirus VP6 and SARS-CoV-2 Receptor Binding Domain Induces T Cell Responses.
Dynamic SARS-CoV-2 specific B cell and T cell responses following immunization of an inactivated COVID-19 vaccine
Neutralizing activity to SARS-CoV-2 of convalescent and control plasma used in a randomized controlled trial
CCR5 Receptor Occupancy Analysis Reveals Increased Peripheral Blood CCR5+CD4+ T Cells Following Treatment With the Anti-CCR5 Antibody Leronlimab
Low-Dose SARS-CoV-2 S-Trimer with an Emulsion Adjuvant Induced Th1-Biased Protective Immunity
Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies Within IVIg Preparations: Cross-Reactivities With Seasonal Coronaviruses, Natural Autoimmunity, and Therapeutic Implications
Prediction and identification of T cell epitopes of COVID-19 with balanced cytokine response for the development of peptide based vaccines.
CASCADE: a phase 2, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial to evaluate the effect of tezepelumab on airway inflammation in patients with uncontrolled asthma.
Low Humoral Immune Response and Ineffective Clearance of SARS-Cov-2 in a COVID-19 Patient With CLL During a 69-Day Follow-Up.
The number of circulating CD26 expressing cells is decreased in critical COVID-19 illness
Enhanced immunogenicity of the tuberculosis subunit Rv0572c vaccine delivered in DMT liposome adjuvant as a BCG-booster
CD169 Defines Activated CD14+ Monocytes With Enhanced CD8+ T Cell Activation Capacity
Divergent SARS CoV-2 Omicron-reactive T- and B cell responses in COVID-19 vaccine recipients
Strong SARS-CoV-2 N-Specific CD8+ T Immunity Induced by Engineered Extracellular Vesicles Associates with Protection from Lethal Infection in Mice
Immune checkpoint inhibition in COVID-19: risks and benefits
Impaired Functional T-Cell Response to SARS-CoV-2 After Two Doses of BNT162b2 mRNA Vaccine in Older People
Zinc-Loaded Black Phosphorus Multifunctional Nanodelivery System Combined With Photothermal Therapy Have the Potential to Treat Prostate Cancer Patients Infected With COVID-19
Nanovesicles derived from bispecific CAR-T cells targeting the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 for treating COVID-19
Case Report: Therapeutic and immunomodulatory effects of plasmapheresis in long-haul COVID
Circulating CD4 T cells elicited by endemic coronaviruses display vast disparities in abundance and functional potential linked to both antigen specificity and age
The vaccinia-based Sementis Copenhagen Vector coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine induces broad and durable cellular and humoral immune responses
Recombinant human interleukin-7 reverses T cell exhaustion ex vivo in critically ill COVID-19 patients
SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell epitope repertoire in convalescent and mRNA-vaccinated individuals
Off-label Use of Itolizumab in Patients with COVID-19 ARDS: Our Clinical Experience in a Dedicated COVID Center
Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of heterologous ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/mRNA vaccination
Unbiased Screens Show CD8+ T Cells of COVID-19 Patients Recognize Shared Epitopes in SARS-CoV-2 that Largely Reside outside the Spike Protein.
Characterization of SARS-CoV-2 proteins reveals Orf6 pathogenicity, subcellular localization, host interactions and attenuation by Selinexor
A COVID-19 peptide vaccine for the induction of SARS-CoV-2 T cell immunity
Longitudinal analysis shows durable and broad immune memory after SARS-CoV-2 infection with persisting antibody responses and memory B and T cells.
Comprehensive Analysis of CD4+ T Cell Response Cross-Reactive to SARS-CoV-2 Antigens at the Single Allele Level of HLA Class II
Identification of HLA-A*02:01-Restricted Candidate Epitopes Derived from the Nonstructural Polyprotein 1a of SARS-CoV-2 That May Be Natural Targets of CD8+ T Cell Recognition In Vivo
Age-related immune response heterogeneity to SARS-CoV-2 vaccine BNT162b2
Effects of Tanreqing Capsule on the negative conversion time of nucleic acid in patients with COVID-19: A retrospective cohort study.
Exploration of surface glycoprotein to design multi-epitope vaccine for the prevention of Covid-19.
Impact of chemotherapy and immunotherapy on the composition and function of immune cells in COVID-19 convalescent with gynecological tumors
SARS-CoV-2 mutations in MHC-I-restricted epitopes evade CD8+ T cell responses
The Magnitude and Functionality of SARS-CoV-2 Reactive Cellular and Humoral Immunity in Transplant Population Is Similar to the General Population Despite Immunosuppression
N-Acetylcysteine: A potential therapeutic agent for SARS-CoV-2
The presentation of SARS-CoV-2 peptides by the common HLA-A*02:01 molecule.
Successful Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T-Cell Treatment in Aggressive Lymphoma Despite Coronavirus Disease 2019 (CoVID-19) and Prolonged Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Replication - Case Report.
In Silico and In Vivo Evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 Predicted Epitopes-Based Candidate Vaccine
Commercial Interferon-gamma release assay to assess the immune response to first and second doses of mRNA vaccine in previously COVID-19 infected versus uninfected individuals.
CD4+ T cells from COVID-19 mRNA vaccine recipients recognize a conserved epitope present in diverse coronaviruses
Thymosin Alpha 1 Mitigates Cytokine Storm in Blood Cells From Coronavirus Disease 2019 Patients
Structural assessment of SARS-CoV2 accessory protein ORF7a predicts LFA-1 and Mac-1 binding potential
Recognition of Variants of Concern by Antibodies and T Cells Induced by a SARS-CoV-2 Inactivated Vaccine
TNF-alpha+ CD4+ T cells dominate the SARS-CoV-2 specific T cell response in COVID-19 outpatients and are associated with durable antibodies.
SARS-CoV-2-Specific and Functional Cytotoxic CD8 Cells in Primary Antibody Deficiency: Natural Infection and Response to Vaccine
The Longest Persistence of Viable SARS-CoV-2 With Recurrence of Viremia and Relapsing Symptomatic COVID-19 in an Immunocompromised Patient-A Case Study.
SARS-CoV-2 T-Cell Responses in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Recipients following Two Doses of BNT162b2 mRNA Vaccine
Identification of a dominant CD8+ CTL epitope in the SARS-associated coronavirus 2 spike protein.
SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine Induced Atypical Immune Responses in Antibody Defects: Everybody Does their Best
Robust T Cell Response Toward Spike, Membrane, and Nucleocapsid SARS-CoV-2 Proteins Is Not Associated with Recovery in Critical COVID-19 Patients.
Rapid GMP-Compliant Expansion of SARS-CoV-2-Specific T Cells From Convalescent Donors for Use as an Allogeneic Cell Therapy for COVID-19
Autophagy in T cells from aged donors is maintained by spermidine and correlates with function and vaccine responses
Interferon Beta-1a treatment promotes SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine response in multiple sclerosis subjects
A single dose, BCG-adjuvanted COVID-19 vaccine provides sterilising immunity against SARS-CoV-2 infection
E4orf1 Suppresses E1B-Deleted Adenovirus Vaccine-Induced Immune Responses
Impact of SARS-CoV-2 variants on the total CD4+ and CD8+ T cell reactivity in infected or vaccinated individuals.
A Highly Conserved Peptide Vaccine Candidate Activates Both Humoral and Cellular Immunity Against SARS-CoV-2 Variant Strains.
Humoral immune response and lymphocyte levels after complete vaccination against COVID-19 in a cohort of multiple sclerosis patients treated with cladribine tablets
Immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 variants after heterologous and homologous ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/BNT162b2 vaccination
Longitudinal T-Cell Responses After a Third SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis on Ocrelizumab or Fingolimod
An intranasal lentiviral booster reinforces the waning mRNA vaccine-induced SARS-CoV-2 immunity that it targets to lung mucosa
Intravenous Anakinra for Macrophage Activation Syndrome May Hold Lessons for Treatment of Cytokine Storm in the Setting of Coronavirus Disease 2019
Thymalin: Activation of Differentiation of Human Hematopoietic Stem Cells
SARS-COV-2 Memory B and T Cells Profile in Mild COVID-19 Convalescents subjects
SARS-CoV-2 Immunization Orchestrates the Amplification of IFNgamma-Producing T Cell and NK Cell Persistence
SARS-CoV-2 ferritin nanoparticle vaccine induces robust innate immune activity driving polyfunctional spike-specific T cell responses
SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell memory is sustained in COVID-19 convalescent patients for 10 months with successful development of stem cell-like memory T cells
SARS-CoV-2 genome-wide T cell epitope mapping reveals immunodominance and substantial CD8+ T cell activation in COVID-19 patients
Broad and strong memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells induced by SARS-CoV-2 in UK convalescent individuals following COVID-19
Highly conserved, non-human-like, and cross-reactive SARS-CoV-2 T cell epitopes for COVID-19 vaccine design and validation
Identification of presented SARS-CoV-2 HLA class I and HLA class II peptides using HLA peptidomics.
T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 spike cross-recognize Omicron
Rituximab Impairs B Cell Response But Not T Cell Response to COVID-19 Vaccine in Autoimmune Diseases
Molecular Basis of a Dominant SARS-CoV-2 Spike-Derived Epitope Presented by HLA-A*02:01 Recognised by a Public TCR
Immunologic memory to SARS-CoV-2 in convalescent COVID-19 patients at 1 year postinfection
Defining the determinants of protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection and viral control in a dose-down Ad26.CoV2.S vaccine study in nonhuman primates
SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines: Inactivation by Gamma Irradiation for T and B Cell Immunity
CLEC4s as Potential Therapeutic Targets in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Microenvironment.
SARS-CoV-2 vaccination can elicit a CD8 T-cell dominant hepatitis
Preclinical Establishment of a Divalent Vaccine against SARS-CoV-2
Homologous and Heterologous Covid-19 Booster Vaccinations
Development of humoral and cellular immunological memory against SARS-CoV-2 despite B cell depleting treatment in multiple sclerosis.
SARS-CoV-2 Epitopes Are Recognized by a Public and Diverse Repertoire of Human T Cell Receptors.
Harnessing HLA-E-restricted CD8 T lymphocytes for adoptive cell therapy of severe COVID-19 patients
SARS-CoV-2 Viral RNA Shedding for More Than 87 Days in an Individual With an Impaired CD8+ T Cell Response
Early Use of Corticosteroid May Prolong SARS-CoV-2 Shedding in Non-Intensive Care Unit Patients with COVID-19 Pneumonia: A Multicenter, Single-Blind, Randomized Control Trial
Successful treatment of COVID-19 infection with convalescent plasma in B-cell-depleted patients may promote cellular immunity
Healthy donor T cell responses to common cold coronaviruses and SARS-CoV-2.
The lncRNA Snhg1-Vps13D vesicle trafficking system promotes memory CD8 T cell establishment via regulating the dual effects of IL-7 signaling
Structural basis of biased T cell receptor recognition of an immunodominant HLA-A2 epitope of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein
A Murine CD8+ T Cell Epitope Identified in the Receptor-Binding Domain of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein.
Comparison of Wild Type DNA Sequence of Spike Protein from SARS-CoV-2 with Optimized Sequence on The Induction of Protective Responses Against SARS-Cov-2 Challenge in Mouse Model
Foxp3+ CD4+ regulatory T cells control dendritic cells in inducing antigen-specific immunity to emerging SARS-CoV-2 antigens
Balancing Potential Benefits and Risks of Bruton Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Therapies in Multiple Sclerosis During the COVID-19 Pandemic
Immunogenicity of Pfizer mRNA COVID-19 Vaccination Followed by J&J Adenovirus COVID-19 Vaccination in Two Patients with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
ChAdOx1-S adenoviral vector vaccine applied intranasally elicits superior mucosal immunity compared to the intramuscular route of vaccination
Durability of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination in people living with HIV
Selection and T-cell antigenicity of synthetic long peptides derived from SARS-CoV-2
Enhanced SARS-CoV-2-Specific CD4+ T Cell Activation and Multifunctionality in Late Convalescent COVID-19 Individuals
Single-Dose Intranasal Administration of AdCOVID Elicits Systemic and Mucosal Immunity against SARS-CoV-2 and Fully Protects Mice from Lethal Challenge
T-cell response after first dose of BNT162b2 SARS-CoV-2 vaccine among healthcare workers with previous infection or cross-reactive immunity
Humoral and Cellular Response Following Vaccination With the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 Vaccine in Patients Affected by Primary Immunodeficiencies
Tofacitinib therapy intercepts macrophage metabolic reprogramming instigated by SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein
Longitudinal dynamics of SARS-CoV-2-specific cellular and humoral immunity after natural infection or BNT162b2 vaccination
Acute SARS-CoV-2 Infection Impairs Dendritic Cell and T Cell Responses.
Vaccinomic approach for novel multi epitopes vaccine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2).
Persistent Spike-specific T cell immunity despite antibody reduction after 3 months from SARS-CoV-2 BNT162b2-mRNA vaccine
SARS-CoV-2 elicits robust adaptive immune responses regardless of disease severity.
Ruxolitinib, a JAK1/2 Inhibitor, Ameliorates Cytokine Storm in Experimental Models of Hyperinflammation Syndrome.
Antibody and T Cell Immune Responses to SARS-CoV-2 Peptides in COVID-19 Convalescent Patients
SARS-CoV-2 Spike-Specific CD4+ T Cell Response Is Conserved Against Variants of Concern, Including Omicron
Differences in the Concentration of Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG Antibodies Post-COVID-19 Recovery or Post-Vaccination.
Identification of conserved SARS-CoV-2 spike epitopes that expand public cTfh clonotypes in mild COVID-19 patients
Protective heterologous T cell immunity in COVID-19 induced by the trivalent MMR and Tdap vaccine antigens.
SARS-CoV-2 variant B.1.1.7 caused HLA-A2+ CD8+ T cell epitope mutations for impaired cellular immune response
BCG vaccine may generate cross-reactive T cells against SARS-CoV-2: In silico analyses and a hypothesis.
Humoral and cell-mediated response elicited by SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine BNT162b2 e in healthcare workers: a longitudinal observational study
Mitochondrial-targeted ubiquinone: A potential treatment for COVID-19.
Interim Results of a Phase 1-2a Trial of Ad26.COV2.S Covid-19 Vaccine
Dominant CD8+ T Cell Nucleocapsid Targeting in SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Broad Spike Targeting From Vaccination
Antigen-Specific CD4+ T-Cell Activation in Primary Antibody Deficiency After BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 Vaccination
Coordinate Induction of Humoral and Spike Specific T-Cell Response in a Cohort of Italian Health Care Workers Receiving BNT162b2 mRNA Vaccine.
Elevated CD21low B Cell Frequency Is a Marker of Poor Immunity to Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 mRNA Vaccine Against SARS-CoV-2 in Patients with Common Variable Immunodeficiency
SARS-CoV-2-reactive interferon-gamma-producing CD8+ T cells in patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019
Minimal Crossover between Mutations Associated with Omicron Variant of SARS-CoV-2 and CD8+ T-Cell Epitopes Identified in COVID-19 Convalescent Individuals
CD4+ T Cells of Prostate Cancer Patients Have Decreased Immune Responses to Antigens Derived From SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein
Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses of Solid Organ Transplant Patients on Belatacept to Three Doses of mRNA-Based Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine
The potential involvement of JAK-STAT signaling pathway in the COVID-19 infection assisted by ACE2.
Virus-Induced CD8+ T-Cell Immunity and Its Exploitation to Contain the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic
SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T cells are associated with long-term persistence of neutralizing antibodies
An immunodominant NP105-113-B*07:02 cytotoxic T cell response controls viral replication and is associated with less severe COVID-19 disease
Integrative immunoinformatics paradigm for predicting potential B-cell and T-cell epitopes as viable candidates for subunit vaccine design against COVID-19 virulence.
Activation of mTORC1 at late endosomes misdirects T cell fate decision in older individuals.
Immunogenicity of Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines in Common Variable Immunodeficiency
BCG vaccination induces enhanced frequencies of memory T cells and altered plasma levels of common gammac cytokines in elderly individuals
SARS-CoV-2 vaccination induces immunological T cell memory able to cross-recognize variants from Alpha to Omicron
In Silico Screening of Natural Products as Potential Inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 Using Molecular Docking Simulation
Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses Against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Variants and Human Coronaviruses After Single BNT162b2 Vaccination
Potential protective role of the anti-PD-1 blockade against SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Assessment of T-cell Reactivity to the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Variant by Immunized Individuals
Identification of HLA-A*24:02-Restricted CTL Candidate Epitopes Derived from the Nonstructural Polyprotein 1a of SARS-CoV-2 and Analysis of Their Conservation Using the Mutation Database of SARS-CoV-2 Variants
Humoral and Cellular Responses to mRNA-1273 and BNT162b2 SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines Administered to Hemodialysis Patients
Case Report: Adequate T and B Cell Responses in a SARS-CoV-2 Infected Patient After Immune Checkpoint Inhibition
Multi-Epitope Vaccine Design Using an Immunoinformatic Approach for SARS-CoV-2.
T-cell responses and therapies against SARS-CoV-2 infection
Durable tracking anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in cancer patients recovered from COVID-19
Effect of BTN162b2 and CoronaVac boosters on humoral and cellular immunity of individuals previously fully vaccinated with CoronaVac against SARS-CoV-2: A longitudinal study
Pre-existing T cell immunity determines the frequency and magnitude of cellular immune response to two doses of mRNA vaccine against SARS-CoV-2
Immunological analysis of the murine anti-CD3-induced cytokine release syndrome model and therapeutic efficacy of anti-cytokine antibodies
A dual-antigen self-amplifying RNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccine induces potent humoral and cellular immune responses and protects against SARS-CoV-2 variants through T cell-mediated immunity
Exposure to SARS-CoV-2 generates T-cell memory in the absence of a detectable viral infection
Successful Induction of Specific Immunological Tolerance by Combined Kidney and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in HLA-Identical Siblings
BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine Reactogenicity: The key role of immunity.
Cellular miR-150-5p may have a crucial role to play in the biology of SARS-CoV-2 infection by regulating nsp10 gene
Construction of SARS-CoV-2 spike-pseudotyped retroviral vector inducing syncytia formation
Novel T cell interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) using spike recombinant protein for COVID19 vaccine response and Nucleocapsid for SARS-Cov2 response
Suboptimal SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cell response associated with the prominent HLA-A*02:01 phenotype
Ancestral SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells cross-recognize the Omicron variant
CD8+ T cells contribute to survival in patients with COVID-19 and hematologic cancer.
Cytotoxic T-Cell-Based Vaccine against SARS-CoV-2: A Hybrid Immunoinformatic Approach
Prevention of Cyclophosphamide-Induced Immunosuppression in Mice With Traditional Chinese Medicine Xuanfei Baidu Decoction
Mucosal IgA response elicited by intranasal immunization of Lactobacillus plantarum expressing surface-displayed RBD protein of SARS-CoV-2.
Development of off-the-shelf hematopoietic stem cell-engineered invariant natural killer T cells for COVID-19 therapeutic intervention
Immunodominant T-cell epitopes from the SARS-CoV-2 spike antigen reveal robust pre-existing T-cell immunity in unexposed individuals
Specific Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses After Booster Dose of BNT162b2 Pfizer-BioNTech mRNA-Based Vaccine: Integrated Study of Adaptive Immune System Components
B Cell Aplasia Is the Most Powerful Predictive Marker for Poor Humoral Response after BNT162b2 mRNA SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination in Recipients of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
Virological and immunological features of SARS-CoV-2-infected children who develop neutralizing antibodies
Decline in neutralising antibody responses, but sustained T-cell immunity, in COVID-19 patients at 7 months post-infection.
Targets of T Cell Responses to SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus in Humans with COVID-19 Disease and Unexposed Individuals
Epitope-based chimeric peptide vaccine design against S, M and E proteins of SARS-CoV-2, the etiologic agent of COVID-19 pandemic: an in silico approach.
Sequence-based prediction of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine targets using a mass spectrometry-based bioinformatics predictor identifies immunogenic T cell epitopes.
Rapid induction of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells is associated with coordinated humoral and cellular immunity to SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination.
A phase I/II dose-escalation multi-center study to evaluate the safety of infusion of natural killer cells or memory T cells as adoptive therapy in coronavirus pneumonia and/or lymphopenia: RELEASE study protocol.
PD-1-Expressing SARS-CoV-2-Specific CD8+ T Cells Are Not Exhausted, but Functional in Patients with COVID-19
SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T-cell responses and TCR signatures in the context of a prominent HLA-A*24:02 allomorph
Immunoinformatic paradigm predicts macrophage and T-cells epitope responses against globally conserved spike fragments of SARS CoV-2 for universal vaccination.
Spontaneous tumor regression following COVID-19 vaccination
Highly feasible immunoprotective multicistronic SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate blending novel eukaryotic expression and Salmonella bactofection.
Safety, immunogenicity, and protection provided by unadjuvanted and adjuvanted formulations of a recombinant plant-derived virus-like particle vaccine candidate for COVID-19 in nonhuman primates
Mutations in spike protein T cell epitopes of SARS-COV-2 variants: Plausible influence on vaccine efficacy
Humoral and Cellular Immunogenicity and Safety of Five Different SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines in Patients With Autoimmune Rheumatic and Musculoskeletal Diseases in Remission or With Low Disease Activity and in Healthy Controls: A Single Center Study
A single dose of COVID-19 vaccine induces a strong T cell and B cell response in healthcare professionals recovered from SARS-CoV-2 infection
Immunogenicity of standard and extended dosing intervals of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine
SARS-CoV-2 infection paralyzes cytotoxic and metabolic functions of the immune cells.
Correlates of Protection Against SARS-CoV-2 in Rhesus Macaques
Immunoinformatics and Structural Analysis for Identification of Immunodominant Epitopes in SARS-CoV-2 as Potential Vaccine Targets
Respiratory mucosal delivery of next-generation COVID-19 vaccine provides robust protection against both ancestral and variant strains of SARS-CoV-2
A Novel Glucocorticoid and Androgen Receptor Modulator Reduces Viral Entry and Innate Immune Inflammatory Responses in the Syrian Hamster Model of SARS-CoV-2 Infection
Clonal analysis of immunodominance and cross-reactivity of the CD4 T cell response to SARS-CoV-2
Identification of SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid and Spike T-Cell Epitopes for Assessing T-Cell Immunity
Adaptive immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 in recovered severe COVID-19 patients.
ImmunosuppressiveTherapies Differently Modulate Humoral- and T-Cell-Specific Responses to COVID-19 mRNA Vaccine in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients
Response to SARS-CoV-2 Initial Series and Additional Dose Vaccine in Patients with Predominant Antibody Deficiency
Multifaceted Immunomodulatory Effects of the BTK Inhibitors Ibrutinib and Acalabrutinib on Different Immune Cell Subsets - Beyond B Lymphocytes.
Immune Profile and Clinical Outcome of Breakthrough Cases After Vaccination With an Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine
Heterologous vaccination regimens with self-amplifying RNA and adenoviral COVID vaccines induce robust immune responses in mice
Highly functional virus-specific cellular immune response in asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection
Protective mucosal immunity against SARS-CoV-2 after heterologous systemic prime-mucosal boost immunization
Antibody and T Cell Response to SARS-CoV-2 Messenger RNA BNT162b2 Vaccine in Kidney Transplant Recipients and Hemodialysis Patients.
Follicular Helper T Cells in the Immunopathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 Infection
CD8+ T cells specific for an immunodominant SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid epitope display high naive precursor frequency and TCR promiscuity.
A third dose of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine significantly improves immune responses among liver transplant recipients
Immune Memory in Mild COVID-19 Patients and Unexposed Donors Reveals Persistent T Cell Responses After SARS-CoV-2 Infection.
High Frequencies of Functional Virus-Specific CD4+ T Cells in SARS-CoV-2 Subjects With Olfactory and Taste Disorders
Recovery from Acute SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Development of Anamnestic Immune Responses in T Cell-Depleted Rhesus Macaques
Molecular basis of the potential interaction of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein to CD147 in COVID-19 associated-lymphopenia
Immune responses following the first dose of the Sputnik V (Gam-COVID-Vac)
Viral nucleoprotein antibodies activate TRIM21 and induce T cell immunity
Intranasal Delivery of MVA Vector Vaccine Induces Effective Pulmonary Immunity Against SARS-CoV-2 in Rodents
Immunological response against SARS-CoV-2 following full-dose administration of Comirnaty COVID-19 vaccine in nursing home residents
Ibrutinib for chronic lymphocytic leukemia in the setting of respiratory failure from severe COVID-19 infection: Case report and literature review.
Green Tea Polyphenol Catechins Inhibit Coronavirus Replication and Potentiate the Adaptive Immunity and Autophagy-Dependent Protective Mechanism to Improve Acute Lung Injury in Mice.
Immunogenicity of COVID-19 Vaccinations in Hematological Patients: 6-Month Follow-Up and Evaluation of a 3rd Vaccination
CD8+ T cells specific for an immunodominant SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid epitope cross-react with selective seasonal coronaviruses.
The impact of viral mutations on recognition by SARS-CoV-2 specific T-cells
Epicutaneous immunization with modified vaccinia Ankara viral vectors generates superior T cell immunity against a respiratory viral challenge
Robust induction of B cell and T cell responses by a third dose of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine
One or two dose regimen of the SARS-CoV-2 synthetic DNA vaccine INO-4800 protects against respiratory tract disease burden in nonhuman primate challenge model.
SARS-CoV-2-specific immune response in COVID-19 convalescent individuals.
Treatment of COVID-19 patients with the anti-CD6 antibody itolizumab.
SARS-CoV-2-Specific T Cells Exhibit Phenotypic Features of Helper Function, Lack of Terminal Differentiation, and High Proliferation Potential.
Early T cell and binding antibody responses are associated with COVID-19 RNA vaccine efficacy onset.
Elevated plasma levels of CXCL16 in severe COVID-19 patients
SARS-CoV-2-reactive T-cell receptors isolated from convalescent COVID-19 patients confer potent T-cell effector function
Discordant neutralizing antibody and T cell responses in asymptomatic and mild SARS-CoV-2 infection
Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines elicit immunogenicity and T-cell responses in people living with HIV.
Treatment with soluble CD24 attenuates COVID-19-associated systemic immunopathology
Highly efficient CD4+ T cell targeting and genetic recombination using engineered CD4+ cell-homing mRNA-LNPs.
Why tocilizumab could be an effective treatment for severe COVID-19?
A Peptide Vaccine Candidate Tailored to Individuals' Genetics Mimics the Multi-Targeted T Cell Immunity of COVID-19 Convalescent Subjects.
The Quality of Anti-SARS-CoV-2 T Cell Responses Predicts the Neutralizing Antibody Titer in Convalescent Plasma Donors
Immunogenicity of BNT162b2 vaccine booster against SARS-CoV-2 Delta and Omicron variants in nursing home residents: A prospective observational study in older adults aged from 68 to 98 years
Mass spectrometric identification of immunogenic SARS-CoV-2 epitopes and cognate TCRs
Genome-Wide B Cell, CD4+, and CD8+ T Cell Epitopes That Are Highly Conserved between Human and Animal Coronaviruses, Identified from SARS-CoV-2 as Targets for Preemptive Pan-Coronavirus Vaccines.
Intradermal ChAdOx1 Vaccine Following Two CoronaVac Shots: A Case Report
Subacute SARS-CoV-2 replication can be controlled in the absence of CD8+ T cells in cynomolgus macaques
SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells are rapidly expanded for therapeutic use and target conserved regions of the membrane protein
HLA Class II Polymorphism and Humoral Immunity Induced by the SARS-CoV-2 mRNA-1273 Vaccine
Broadly directed SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T cell response includes frequently detected peptide specificities within the membrane and nucleoprotein in patients with acute and resolved COVID-19
A snapshot of the immunogenicity, efficacy and safety of a full course of BNT162b2 anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in cancer patients treated with PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors: a longitudinal cohort study.
BCG Vaccine Derived Peptides Induce SARS-CoV-2 T Cell Cross-Reactivity.
CD147-spike protein is a novel route for SARS-CoV-2 infection to host cells.
SARS-CoV-2-Seronegative Subjects Target CTL Epitopes in the SARS-CoV-2 Nucleoprotein Cross-Reactive to Common Cold Coronaviruses.
Designing of Nucleocapsid Protein Based Novel Multi-epitope Vaccine Against SARS-COV-2 Using Immunoinformatics Approach.
Induction of High Levels of Specific Humoral and Cellular Responses to SARS-CoV-2 After the Administration of Covid-19 mRNA Vaccines Requires Several Days
Identifying SARS-CoV-2 'memory' NK cells from COVID-19 convalescent donors for adoptive cell therapy
Anti-COVID-19 potential of Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaf extract.
Randomized, double-blind, controlled trial of human anti-LIGHT monoclonal antibody in COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome
Targeting intra-viral conserved nucleocapsid (N) proteins as novel vaccines against SARS-CoVs
Heterologous prime-boost immunizations with chimpanzee adenoviral vectors elicit potent and protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 infection
A Novel Combination of Vitamin C, Curcumin and Glycyrrhizic Acid Potentially Regulates Immune and Inflammatory Response Associated with Coronavirus Infections: A Perspective from System Biology Analysis
PD-1 blockade counteracts post-COVID-19 immune abnormalities and stimulates the anti-SARS-CoV-2 immune response
T Cell Immunity Evaluation and Immunodominant Epitope T Cell Receptor Identification of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Spike Glycoprotein in COVID-19 Convalescent Patients
Increased resistance of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant to neutralization by vaccine-elicited and therapeutic antibodies
Immune checkpoint inhibitors increase T cell immunity during SARS-CoV-2 infection
Immunological memory and neutralizing activity to a single dose of COVID-19 vaccine in previously infected individuals.
Immunoinformatics-guided design of an epitope-based vaccine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 spike glycoprotein.
Comprehensive analysis of T cell immunodominance and immunoprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 epitopes in COVID-19 cases.
Temporary antimetabolite treatment hold boosts SARS-CoV-2 vaccination-specific humoral and cellular immunity in kidney transplant recipients
CD8 T cell epitope generation toward the continually mutating SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in genetically diverse human population: Implications for disease control and prevention
SARS-CoV-2-Specific T Cell Responses in Patients with COVID-19 and Unexposed Individuals.
Clinical Trials of the BTK Inhibitors Ibrutinib and Acalabrutinib in Human Diseases Beyond B Cell Malignancies
Cross-Recognition of SARS-CoV-2 B-Cell Epitopes with Other Betacoronavirus Nucleoproteins
B and T Cell Responses after a Third Dose of SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine in Kidney Transplant Recipients.
SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells are generated in less than half of allogeneic HSCT recipients failing to seroconvert after COVID-19 vaccination
Plasma exchange followed by convalescent plasma transfusion in COVID-19 patients.
Markers of Memory CD8 T Cells Depicting the Effect of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 Vaccine in Japan
Cross-reactive and mono-reactive SARS-CoV-2 CD4+ T cells in prepandemic and COVID-19 convalescent individuals
Transcriptomic analysis reveals optimal cytokine combinations for SARS-CoV-2 Specific T cell therapy products
Reactogenicity and immunogenicity after a late second dose or a third dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 in the UK: a substudy of two randomised controlled trials (COV001 and COV002).
Immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in young patients with anti-CD19 CAR-T-induced B-cell aplasia
Successful Treatment of Persistent SARS-CoV-2 Infection in a B-Cell Depleted Patient with Activated Cytotoxic T and NK Cells: A Case Report
The PDE4 Inhibitor Tanimilast Blunts Proinflammatory Dendritic Cell Activation by SARS-CoV-2 ssRNAs
Unbiased interrogation of memory B cells from convalescent COVID-19 patients reveals a broad antiviral humoral response targeting SARS-CoV-2 antigens beyond the spike protein
Heterologous boosting with third dose of coronavirus disease recombinant subunit vaccine increases neutralizing antibodies and T cell immunity against different severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 variants
Exploring SARS-COV-2 structural proteins to design a multi-epitope vaccine using immunoinformatics approach: An in silico study.
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Infection Induces Greater T-Cell Responses Compared to Vaccination in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients
Immunological Response Against SARS-COV-2 After BNT162b2 Vaccine Administration Is Impaired in Allogeneic but Not in Autologous Stem Cell Transplant Recipients
Polymersomes as Stable Nanocarriers for a Highly Immunogenic and Durable SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Subunit Vaccine
CCR5 inhibition in critical COVID-19 patients decreases inflammatory cytokines, increases CD8 T-cells, and decreases SARS-CoV2 RNA in plasma by day 14.
MCMV-based vaccine vectors expressing full-length viral proteins provide long-term humoral immune protection upon a single-shot vaccination
Humoral and T-Cell Response to SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis Treated With Ocrelizumab.
Differences in Humoral and Cellular Vaccine Responses to SARS-CoV-2 in Kidney and Liver Transplant Recipients
Low-dose mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine generates durable memory enhanced by cross-reactive T cells
Identification of TCR repertoires in functionally competent cytotoxic T cells cross-reactive to SARS-CoV-2
Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte elicited vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 employing immunoinformatics framework.
Vaccinated and convalescent donor-derived SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells as adoptive immunotherapy for high-risk COVID-19 patients
Impaired SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell reactivity in patients with cirrhosis following mRNA COVID-19 vaccination
CoVac501, a self-adjuvanting peptide vaccine conjugated with TLR7 agonists, against SARS-CoV-2 induces protective immunity
Phenotypes and Functions of SARS-CoV-2-Reactive T Cells
Waning immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern among vaccinees in Hong Kong
Two doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination induce robust immune responses to emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern
Cellular immunity predominates over humoral immunity after homologous and heterologous mRNA and vector-based COVID-19 vaccine regimens in solid organ transplant recipients
Innate immunity in COVID-19 patients mediated by NKG2A receptors, and potential treatment using Monalizumab, Cholroquine, and antiviral agents

Clinical trials

ID Title Status Phase Start date Completion date
NCT04565067 Identification and Characterization of SARS-CoV-2 Specific CD8 T Cells in Humans Recruiting Sep/22/2020 Sep/20/2022
  • Alternative id - 10000140|000140-AG
  • Interventions -
  • Study type - Observational
  • Study results - No Results Available
  • Locations - National Institute of Aging, Clinical Research Unit, Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • Study designs - Observational Model: Cohort|Time Perspective: Prospective
  • Enrollment - 120
  • Age - 18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
  • Outcome measures - Determine CD8 T cells that are responsive to SARS-CoV-2.
NCT04470323 Functional Exhaustion of T Cells in COVID19 Patients Recruiting Jul/22/2020 Nov/01/2020
  • Alternative id - T cells
  • Interventions - Diagnostic Test: Flow cytometry
  • Study type - Observational
  • Study results - No Results Available
  • Locations - Faculty of Medicine, Assiut, Egypt
  • Study designs - Observational Model: Case-Control|Time Perspective: Prospective
  • Enrollment - 100
  • Age - Child, Adult, Older Adult
  • Outcome measures - CD4+ (T-helper cells) in COVID 19 patients and healthy volunteers.|CD8+ (T-cytotoxic cells) in COVID 19 patients and healthy volunteers.|Detect PD-1 on CD8+ and CD4+ cells in COVID 19 patients and healthy volunteers .|Detect CD28+ and CD3+ cells in COVID 19 patients and healthy volunteers.
NCT04351659 Novel Adoptive Cellular Therapy With SARS-CoV-2 Specific T Cells in Patients With Severe COVID-19 Recruiting Apr/14/2020 Aug/01/2020
  • Alternative id - COVID-T 1.0
  • Interventions - Other: Blood donation from convalescent donor
  • Study type - Observational
  • Study results - No Results Available
  • Locations - National University Hospital, Singapore, Singapore|Singapore General Hospital, Singapore, Singapore
  • Study designs - Observational Model: Cohort|Time Perspective: Prospective
  • Enrollment - 8
  • Age - 21 Years to 65 Years   (Adult, Older Adult)
  • Outcome measures - Success rate in production of SARS-CoV-2 specific T cells from convalescent donor
NCT04790240 Medical Herbs Inhibit Inflammation Directing T Cells to Kill the COVID-19 Virus (COVID) Recruiting Phase 1|Phase 2 Feb/01/2021 Mar/01/2023
  • Alternative id - CHM2282395-1
  • Interventions - Dietary Supplement: Inflammation (I)|Dietary Supplement: Inflammation (II)|Dietary Supplement: Inflammation (III)|Drug: Standard of care
  • Study type - Interventional
  • Study results - No Results Available
  • Locations - All Natural Medicine Clinic, LLC, Rockville, Maryland, United States
  • Study designs - Allocation: Randomized|Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment|Masking: Double (Participant, Care Provider)|Primary Purpose: Treatment
  • Enrollment - 120
  • Age - 10 Years to 70 Years   (Child, Adult, Older Adult)
  • Outcome measures - recovering damaged organ|inhibiting inflammation|preventing the antibody depositing on antigen|monitoring the antibody level|correcting reversed immunity ratio|tracking the COVID virus marks
NCT05019456 Exercise and COVID-19 Viral T-cell Immunity Recruiting Not Applicable Mar/09/2021 Dec/25/2022
  • Alternative id - 2102477676
  • Interventions - Biological: COVID-19 Vaccine
  • Study type - Interventional
  • Study results - No Results Available
  • Locations - University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, United States
  • Study designs - Allocation: N/A|Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment|Masking: None (Open Label)|Primary Purpose: Basic Science
  • Enrollment - 30
  • Age - 18 Years to 44 Years   (Adult)
  • Outcome measures - Determine IFN-γ concentration after whole blood stimulation with SARS-CoV-2 peptides|Determine IFN-γ spot forming cells after stimulation with SARS-CoV-2 peptides|Determine SARS-CoV-2 T-cell phenotype|Expand SARS-CoV-2 specific T-cells|Determine SARS-CoV-2 T-cells TCR-β diversity
NCT04364828 NGS Diagnostic in COVID-19 Hosts - Genetic Cause Relating to the Course of Disease Progression Recruiting Not Applicable Oct/21/2020 Aug/01/2022
  • Alternative id - COVID-19 NGS
  • Interventions - Genetic: Whole Genome Analysis|Genetic: T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire|Genetic: SARS-CoV-2 viral composition
  • Study type - Interventional
  • Study results - No Results Available
  • Locations - University Hospital Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany
  • Study designs - Allocation: Non-Randomized|Intervention Model: Sequential Assignment|Masking: None (Open Label)|Primary Purpose: Diagnostic
  • Enrollment - 1000
  • Age - 18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
  • Outcome measures - Viral evolution|Immune response|Disease severity
NCT04990557 CRISPR/Cas9-modified Human T Cell ( PD-1and ACE2 Knockout Engineered T Cells ) for Inducing Long-term Immunity in COVID-19 Patients Not yet recruiting Phase 1|Phase 2 Aug/01/2021 Nov/01/2022
  • Alternative id - Novel Treatment for Covid-19
  • Interventions - Drug: PD-1 and ACE2 Knockout T Cells
  • Study type - Interventional
  • Study results - No Results Available
  • Locations -
  • Study designs - Allocation: Non-Randomized|Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment|Masking: None (Open Label)|Primary Purpose: Treatment
  • Enrollment - 16
  • Age - 18 Years to 70 Years   (Adult, Older Adult)
  • Outcome measures - Number of Participants With Adverse Events and/or Dose Limiting Toxicities as a Measure of Safety and Tolerability of Dose of PD-1 Knockout T Cells Using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE v4.0) in Patients|Number of Patients With Overall Response to the reinfection|All cause mortality rate|Proportion of patients with upregulated inflammatory factors|Serum levels of IL-6,TNF,TLR3,CRP, ESR and Type I interferon|Absolute lymphocyte counts (CD4,CD8 and CD25+FOXP3+ Regulatory T)|Safety-Hematology
NCT05113862 Evaluation of Safety and Immunogenicity of a T-Cell Priming Peptide Vaccine Against Coronavirus COVID-19 Recruiting Phase 1 Dec/01/2021 Nov/01/2022
  • Alternative id - naNO-COVID
  • Interventions - Biological: LD Vehicle-GNP|Biological: LD PepGNP-SARSCoV2|Biological: HD Vehicle-GNP|Biological: HD PepGNP-SARSCoV2
  • Study type - Interventional
  • Study results - No Results Available
  • Locations - Center for Primary Care and Public Health (Unisante), Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland
  • Study designs - Allocation: Randomized|Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment|Masking: Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)|Primary Purpose: Prevention
  • Enrollment - 26
  • Age - 18 Years to 45 Years   (Adult)
  • Outcome measures - Safety: Solicited local and systemic AEs|Safety: Unsolicited AEs|Safety: SAEs|Safety: Adverse Events of Special Interest (AESI)|Immunogenicity: Proportion of participants with CD8-T cell specific to PepGNP-SARSCoV2|Proportion of participants becoming seropositive (antibodies against SARS-CoV2)
NCT04406064 Viral Specific T-cells for Treatment of COVID-19 Withdrawn Phase 2 Jan/01/2021 Jun/01/2025
  • Alternative id - 2020-0353
  • Interventions - Biological: Viral Specific T-cells (VSTs)
  • Study type - Interventional
  • Study results - No Results Available
  • Locations - Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States
  • Study designs - Allocation: N/A|Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment|Masking: None (Open Label)|Primary Purpose: Treatment
  • Enrollment - 0
  • Age - Child, Adult, Older Adult
  • Outcome measures - Successful production of viral specific T-cells|Presence of viral-specific T-cells
NCT04578210 Safety Infusion of NatuRal KillEr celLs or MEmory T Cells as Adoptive Therapy in COVID-19 pnEumonia or Lymphopenia Recruiting Phase 1|Phase 2 Sep/04/2020 Mar/01/2021
  • Alternative id - RELEASE
  • Interventions - Biological: T memory cells and NK cells
  • Study type - Interventional
  • Study results - No Results Available
  • Locations - Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid, Spain
  • Study designs - Allocation: Randomized|Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment|Masking: Triple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator)|Primary Purpose: Treatment
  • Enrollment - 58
  • Age - up to 80 Years   (Child, Adult, Older Adult)
  • Outcome measures - Occurrence of DLTs in all patients during the study treatment, until 21 days after cell infusion and the MTD
NCT04573348 T Cells Response to SARS COV 2 Peptides Recruiting Oct/14/2020 Oct/10/2021
  • Alternative id - PBMC _COVID 19
  • Interventions - Diagnostic Test: Savicell's ImmunoBiopsy™
  • Study type - Observational
  • Study results - No Results Available
  • Locations - Carmel Medical Center, Haifa, North, Israel
  • Study designs - Observational Model: Other|Time Perspective: Prospective
  • Enrollment - 400
  • Age - 18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
  • Outcome measures - Positive and negative diagnosis (scored 0/1 dichotomously) in accordance with test results (MA/ELISA/PCR)|Prevalence of positive for SARS - COV2 - in healthy donors.
NCT04765449 Transfer of Infection Fighting Immune Cells Generated in the Laboratory to High Risk Patients With COVID-19 Infection Recruiting Phase 1 Sep/15/2021 Jul/29/2022
  • Alternative id - 21P.015
  • Interventions - Drug: Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes
  • Study type - Interventional
  • Study results - No Results Available
  • Locations - Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • Study designs - Allocation: Non-Randomized|Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment|Masking: None (Open Label)|Primary Purpose: Treatment
  • Enrollment - 24
  • Age - 18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
  • Outcome measures - Safety of COVID-19-specific CTLs: Infusion Reactions|Safety of COVID-19-specific CTLs: Grade 4 AEs|Safety of COVID-19-specific CTLs: GVHD|Safety of COVID-19-specific CTLs: Marrow Aplasia|Safety of COVID-19-specific CTLs: Neurotoxicty|Safety of COVID-19-specific CTLs: CRS|Measurement of COVID-19 viral load|Studies to detect the persistence of the COVID-19-specific T cells after COVID-19 T cell infusion|Studies to examine the development of endogenous COVID-19 specific T cells|Studies to examine the development of anti-COVID-19 antibodies|Review of medical history including the need for supplemental oxygen, the ability to return to work, performance status, grade of dyspnea, grade of fatigue, survival, the need for blood pressure support
NCT04874818 CD8+ T-cell PET/CT Imaging in COVID-19 Patients Not yet recruiting May/01/2021 Sep/01/2022
  • Alternative id - NL76248.091.20|2020-005984-29
  • Interventions - Diagnostic Test: [89Zr]Df-IAB22M2C PET/CT scan
  • Study type - Observational
  • Study results - No Results Available
  • Locations -
  • Study designs - Observational Model: Cohort|Time Perspective: Prospective
  • Enrollment - 20
  • Age - 50 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
  • Outcome measures - The primary objective of this study is to assess differences in the in vivo distribution of CD8+ T-cells in patients with proven SARS-CoV-2 presenting with lymphopenia or with normal lymphocyte counts.|Imaging related|Biomarker related|Clinical outcome related
NCT04762186 Viable Human SARS-CoV-2 Specific T Cell Transfer in Patients at Risk for Severe COVID-19 Recruiting Phase 1 Dec/08/2021 Feb/01/2023
  • Alternative id - Uni-Koeln-4480
  • Interventions - Drug: human SARS-CoV 2 specific T lymphocytes
  • Study type - Interventional
  • Study results - No Results Available
  • Locations - Department I for Internal Medicine University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, NRW, Germany
  • Study designs - Allocation: N/A|Intervention Model: Sequential Assignment|Masking: None (Open Label)|Primary Purpose: Treatment
  • Enrollment - 12
  • Age - 18 Years to 99 Years   (Adult, Older Adult)
  • Outcome measures - Phase I: Dose-limiting toxicities|Phase I: Safety|Phase I: Acute graft- vs. -host disease|Phase I: Clinical status|Phase I: Hospitalization|Phase I: SARS-CoV-2 PCR positivity|Phase I: Detection of viable human SARS-CoV-2-specific T lymphocyte|Phase I: viral shedding in nasooropharyngeal swabs
NCT04852289 A Clinical Observational Study of SARS-CoV-2 Specific CD8 T-Cell Responses to COVID-19 Vaccines in Humans Recruiting Apr/20/2021 Mar/31/2024
  • Alternative id - 10000383|000383-AG
  • Interventions -
  • Study type - Observational
  • Study results - No Results Available
  • Locations - National Institute of Aging, Clinical Research Unit, Baltimore, Maryland, United States|NIH/NIA/Biomedical Research Center at Johns Hopkins Bayview campus, Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • Study designs - Observational Model: Cohort|Time Perspective: Prospective
  • Enrollment - 160
  • Age - 18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
  • Outcome measures - We are investigating the presence or absence of various SARS-CoV-2 specific CD8 T cells in healthy COVID-19 vaccinated participants to understand the composition of CD8 T cell immunity in COVID-19 pathogenesis.
NCT05165719 Validation of 'Corona-T-test' for Assessment of SARS-COV-2-specific T-cell Response After COVID-19 or Vaccination Completed Jul/07/2021 Nov/20/2021
  • Alternative id - Corona-T-test
  • Interventions - Diagnostic Test: Corona-T-test
  • Study type - Observational
  • Study results - No Results Available
  • Locations - National Research Center for Hematology, Moscow, Russian Federation
  • Study designs - Observational Model: Cohort|Time Perspective: Prospective
  • Enrollment - 220
  • Age - 18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
  • Outcome measures - The result of Corona-T-test
NCT04898985 The Leukemia and Lymphoma Society (LLS) T-cells in Blood Cancer and COVID-19 Enrolling by invitation May/20/2021 May/20/2031
  • Alternative id - LLSC19-002
  • Interventions - Diagnostic Test: ImmunoSEQ
  • Study type - Observational
  • Study results - No Results Available
  • Locations - Lymphoma and Leukemia Society, Rye Brook, New York, United States
  • Study designs - Observational Model: Case-Control|Time Perspective: Prospective
  • Enrollment - 1000
  • Age - Child, Adult, Older Adult
  • Outcome measures - Number of people who have developed T cells from a COVID-19 vaccination
NCT04837651 Humoral and T-Cell Responses to COVID-19 Vaccination in Multiple Sclerosis Patients Treated With Ocrelizumab Treated With Ocrelizumab or Natalizumab Completed Mar/02/2021 Jul/01/2021
  • Alternative id - VA26843
  • Interventions - Device: Elecsys semi-quantitative Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody test|Device: T-Detect COVID T-cell blood test
  • Study type - Observational
  • Study results - No Results Available
  • Locations - Dragonfly Research, LLC, Wellesley, Massachusetts, United States
  • Study designs - Observational Model: Cohort|Time Perspective: Prospective
  • Enrollment - 48
  • Age - 18 Years to 55 Years   (Adult)
  • Outcome measures - SARS-CoV-2 B-cell response|SARS-CoV-2 T-cell response
NCT04898140 The Evaluation of Cellular and Humoral Immunity to COVID-19 in Moscow Residents Recruiting Oct/20/2020 Dec/31/2021
  • Alternative id - 1027739482649/0908/4_9
  • Interventions - Diagnostic Test: SARS-CoV-2 specific IgM and IgG detection|Diagnostic Test: ELISpot: detection of the T cells specific to different SARS-CoV-2 proteins|Diagnostic Test: Flow cytometry: detection of the SARS-CoV-2 specific T-helpers and cytotoxic T lymphocytes
  • Study type - Observational
  • Study results - No Results Available
  • Locations - Clinical City Hospital named after I.V. Davydovsky of Moscow Department of Healthcare, Moscow, Russian Federation
  • Study designs - Observational Model: Cohort|Time Perspective: Prospective
  • Enrollment - 6500
  • Age - 18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
  • Outcome measures - IgM/IgG titer|Peripheral blood T cells specific to different SARS-CoV-2 proteins|Subpopulations of SARS-CoV-2 specific peripheral blood T lymphocytes|Primary or repeated COVID-19 cases
NCT04362865 Investigation of the B- and T-cell Repertoire and Immune Response in Patients With Acute and Resolved COVID-19 Infection Recruiting Apr/27/2020 Dec/01/2024
  • Alternative id - 200103|20-C-0103
  • Interventions -
  • Study type - Observational
  • Study results - No Results Available
  • Locations - Medstar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, District of Columbia, United States|Medstar Franklin Square Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland, United States|National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, Bethesda, Maryland, United States|Medstar Montgomery Medical Center, Olney, Maryland, United States
  • Study designs - Observational Model: Cohort|Time Perspective: Prospective
  • Enrollment - 530
  • Age - 18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
  • Outcome measures - Characterize immune response|Immune response and outcome|B- and T-cell arm immune response
NCT04457726 Part Two of Novel Adoptive Cellular Therapy With SARS-CoV-2 Specific T Cells in Patients With Severe COVID-19 Recruiting Phase 1|Phase 2 Jul/01/2020 Dec/01/2022
  • Alternative id - COVID-T 2.0
  • Interventions - Biological: SARS-CoV-2 Specific T Cells
  • Study type - Interventional
  • Study results - No Results Available
  • Locations - Changi General Hospital, Singapore, Singapore|KK Women's and Children's Hospital, Singapore, Singapore|National University Hospital, Singapore, Singapore|Sengkang General Hospital, Singapore, Singapore|Singapore General Hospital, Singapore, Singapore
  • Study designs - Allocation: Non-Randomized|Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment|Masking: None (Open Label)|Primary Purpose: Treatment
  • Enrollment - 18
  • Age - 1 Year to 90 Years   (Child, Adult, Older Adult)
  • Outcome measures - Dose-Limiting Toxicities|National Early Warning Score (NEWS)|Time to improvement by one category on a WHO ordinal scale|Time-to-SARS-CoV-2 negativity after infusion of SARS-CoV-2 specific T cells|Duration of persistence of SARS-CoV-2 specific T cells in the recipient's blood circulation|Time-to-normalization of cytokine level, lymphocyte subsets, and gene transcriptome after T cell infusion|Overall survival (OS) at 3 months after infusion of SARS-CoV-2 specific T cells
NCT04742595 Viral Specific T Cell Therapy for COVID-19 Related Pneumonia Recruiting Early Phase 1 Dec/18/2020 Mar/31/2024
  • Alternative id - 2020-0759|NCI-2020-13875
  • Interventions - Biological: SARS-CoV-2 Antigen-specific Cytotoxic T-lymphocytes
  • Study type - Interventional
  • Study results - No Results Available
  • Locations - M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, United States
  • Study designs - Allocation: N/A|Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment|Masking: None (Open Label)|Primary Purpose: Treatment
  • Enrollment - 16
  • Age - 18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
  • Outcome measures - Assessment of feasibility|Incidence of adverse events|Response to cytotoxic T lymphocytes|Overall survival|Relapse free survival (original malignancy)|Cumulative incidence of coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia resolution after therapy|Cumulative incidence of grade 2-4 or 3-4 graft versus host disease (GVHD), and chronic GVHD|All-cause mortality|Proportion of subjects alive and free of respiratory failure|Reconstitution of anti-virus immunity