T cells

SARS-CoV-2 Specific T Cells

Phase of research

Potential treatment - pre-clinical evidence

How it helps

Antiviral

Drug status

Used to treat other disease

6
Supporting references
0
Contradictory references
17
Clinical trials

General information

T lymphocyte cells are one of the important white blood cells of the immune system and play a central role in the adaptive immune response. Groups of specific, differentiated T cell subtypes, such as helper, cytotoxic, memory, and regulatory T cells, have a variety of important functions in controlling and shaping the immune response. Memory T cells do appear when T cells recognize a pathogen presented by their local antigen-presenting cells. These T cells activate, proliferate, and differentiate into effector cells secreting compounds to control the infection. Once the pathogen has been cleared, most of the antigen-specific T cells disappear, and a pool of heterogeneous long-lived memory T cells persists. This population of memory T cells, defined as CD45RA or CD45RO+, is maintained over time conferring rapid and long-term immune protection against subsequent reinfections. 

Current research shows the presence of a SARS-CoV-2 specific T-cell population within CD45RA memory T cells from the blood of convalescent donors that can be easily, effectively, and rapidly isolated. These specific SARS-CoV-2 memory T cells may be able to clear virally infected cells and confer T-cell immunity for subsequent reinfections. These cells can be stored for use in moderate and severe cases of COVID-19 patients requiring hospitalization, thereby representing an off-the-shelf living drug.

T cell on Wikipedia.

On September 17, 2020, AlloVir, a late clinical-stage cell therapy company, announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has cleared the Investigational New Drug application (IND) for ALVR109, an allogeneic, off-the-shelf virus-specific T cell therapy candidate designed to target SARS-CoV-2. ALVR109 is being developed to arrest the progression of COVID-19 by eradicating SARS-CoV-2 virus-infected cells.


Synonyms

T lymphocytes; T-cell; T Cell Therapy; T memory cells; adoptive cellular therapy; adoptive cell therapy


Supporting references

Link Tested on Impact factor Notes Publication date DB entry date
SARS-CoV-2-Specific Memory T Lymphocytes From COVID-19 Convalescent Donors: Identification, Biobanking, and Large-Scale Production for Adoptive Cell Therapy
cell-based therapy adoptive cell therapy
in vitro 5.18

In this study, we report the presence of a SARS-CoV-2 specific T-cell population within CD45RA memory T cells from the blood of convalescent donors that can be easily, effectively, and rapidly isolated by CD45RA depletion. These specific SARS-CoV-2 CD45RA memory T cells may be able to clear virally infected cells and confer T-cell immunity for subsequent reinfections. These cells can be stored for use in moderate and severe cases of COVID-19 patients requiring hospitalization, thereby representing an off-the-shelf living drug.

Feb/25/2021 Apr/22/2021
Rapid GMP-Compliant Expansion of SARS-CoV-2–Specific T Cells From Convalescent Donors for Use as an Allogeneic Cell Therapy for COVID-19
cell-based therapy adoptive cell therapy
in vitro 6.43

Donations from individuals who have been infected with SARS-CoV-2 with mild symptoms and have recovered retain normal T cell compartment profiles, with CD4 and CD8 memory and effector T cells specific for SARS-CoV-2 spike, nucleocapsid and membrane antigens. These virus-specific T cells (VSTs) can be isolated using Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)-compatible selection technology and rapidly expanded in vitro using closed culture vessels and GMP-compliant reagents and medium. The mononuclear cell fraction of a single whole blood donation from a COVID-19 convalescent donor (CCD) can be used to generate up to 1011 T cells within 21 days with the desired central memory phenotype as a potential new therapy for SARS-CoV-2. This offers the potential for the manufacture of a bank of HLA-matched donor T cell products for use in clinical trial and future treatment of COVID-19 patients.

Jan/08/2021 Apr/29/2021
SARS-CoV-2–specific T cells are rapidly expanded for therapeutic use and target conserved regions of the membrane protein
cell-based therapy adoptive cell therapy
in vitro 17.54

This study shows that SARS-CoV-2 directed T-cell immunotherapy targeting structural proteins, most importantly membrane protein, should be feasible for the prevention or early treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection in immunocompromised patients with blood disorders or after bone marrow transplantation to achieve antiviral control while mitigating uncontrolled inflammation.

Dec/17/2020 Apr/22/2021
Using Allogeneic, Off-the-Shelf, Sars-Cov-2-Specific T Cells to Treat High Risk Patients with COVID-19
preprint
in vitro

SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells generated from convalescent individuals are Th1-polarized, polyfunctional and selectively able to kill viral antigen-expressing targets with no auto- or alloreactivity, indicative of both their selectivity and safety for clinical use.

Dec/07/2020 Apr/30/2021
Rapid production of clinical‐grade SARS‐CoV‐2 specific T cells
cell-based therapy adoptive cell therapy
Theory only

High frequencies of rapid antigenâ€Âreactive T cells were found in convalescent donors, regardless of severity of COVIDâ€Â19. The feasibility of clinicalâ€Âgrade production of SARSâ€ÂCoVâ€Â2â€Âspecific T cells overnight for therapeutics and diagnostics is revealed.

Jul/12/2020 Apr/22/2021
Harnessing HLA‐E‐restricted CD8 T lymphocytes for adoptive cell therapy of patients with severe COVID‐19
cell-based therapy adoptive cell therapy
Theory only 5.52

HLA‐E‐restricted and SARS‐CoV‐2‐specific CD8 T cells could be rapidly and cost‐effectively prepared in large numbers from COVID‐19 convalescent allogeneic donors, banked and used immediately upon request for patients with severe COVID‐19.

Jun/01/2020 Apr/30/2021

Clinical trials

ID Title Status Phase Start date Completion date
NCT04852289 A Clinical Observational Study of SARS-CoV-2 Specific CD8 T-Cell Responses to COVID-19 Vaccines in Humans Recruiting Jul/30/2021 Mar/31/2024
NCT04565067 Identification and Characterization of SARS-CoV-2 Specific CD8 T Cells in Humans Recruiting Jul/30/2021 Sep/01/2022
NCT04765449 Transfer of Infection Fighting Immune Cells Generated in the Laboratory to High Risk Patients With COVID-19 Infection Not yet recruiting Phase 1 Jul/19/2021 Jul/29/2022
NCT04898985 The Leukemia and Lymphoma Society (LLS) T-cells in Blood Cancer and COVID-19 Enrolling by invitation May/20/2021 May/20/2031
NCT04874818 CD8+ T-cell PET/CT Imaging in COVID-19 Patients Not yet recruiting May/01/2021 Sep/01/2022
NCT04837651 Humoral and T-Cell Responses to COVID-19 Vaccination in Multiple Sclerosis Patients Treated With Ocrelizumab Treated With Ocrelizumab or Natalizumab Completed Mar/02/2021 Jul/01/2021
NCT04790240 Medical Herbs Inhibit Inflammation Directing T Cells to Kill the COVID-19 Virus (COVID) Recruiting Phase 1|Phase 2 Feb/01/2021 Mar/01/2023
NCT04406064 Viral Specific T-cells for Treatment of COVID-19 Withdrawn Phase 2 Jan/01/2021 Jun/01/2025
NCT04742595 SARS-CoV-2 Specific Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes for the Treatment of COVID-19 in Patients With Cancer Recruiting Early Phase 1 Dec/18/2020 Mar/31/2022
NCT04364828 NGS Diagnostic in COVID-19 Hosts - Genetic Cause Relating to the Course of Disease Progression Recruiting Not Applicable Oct/21/2020 Aug/01/2022
NCT04898140 The Evaluation of Cellular and Humoral Immunity to COVID-19 in Moscow Residents Recruiting Oct/20/2020 Dec/31/2021
NCT04573348 T Cells Response to SARS COV 2 Peptides Recruiting Oct/14/2020 Oct/10/2021
NCT04578210 Safety Infusion of NatuRal KillEr celLs or MEmory T Cells as Adoptive Therapy in COVID-19 pnEumonia or Lymphopenia Recruiting Phase 1|Phase 2 Sep/04/2020 Mar/01/2021
NCT04470323 Functional Exhaustion of T Cells in COVID19 Patients Recruiting Jul/22/2020 Nov/01/2020
NCT04457726 Part Two of Novel Adoptive Cellular Therapy With SARS-CoV-2 Specific T Cells in Patients With Severe COVID-19 Recruiting Phase 1|Phase 2 Jul/01/2020 Dec/01/2022
NCT04362865 Investigation of the B- and T-cell Repertoire and Immune Response in Patients With Acute and Resolved COVID-19 Infection Recruiting Apr/27/2020 Dec/01/2024
NCT04351659 Novel Adoptive Cellular Therapy With SARS-CoV-2 Specific T Cells in Patients With Severe COVID-19 Recruiting Apr/14/2020 Aug/01/2020