Remdesivir

Nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) analogue.

Phase of research

Approved by FDA

How it helps

Antiviral

Drug status

Experimental

62
Supporting references
5
Contradictory references
63
Clinical trials

General information

Remdesivir was developed as a broad-spectrum antiviral substance originally tested for efficacy in Ebola virus treatment (Siegel et al., 2017). It is a prodrug that is metabolised into an ATP analogue (RTP), which serves as a substrate for SARS-CoV-2 RNA primer strand RNA-dependent RNA synthesis. Remdesivir effectively blocks it (Yin et al., 2020), likely via delayed termination and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) complex destabilization (Byléhn et al., 2021). Up to 4 remdesivir monophosphates (RMPs) were observed to be incorporated into the nascent RNA chain, with the fourth being incorporated significantly slower. The fourth RMP was observed not to translocate from the active site of RdRp, possibly due to steric inhibition between the first RMP and RdRp (Bravo et al., 2021). This process is efficient because the incorporation of RMP into the nascent RNA by SARS-CoV-2 RdRp is more efficient than that of AMP (Dangerfield et al., 2020). Remdesivir was also shown to disrupts viral RNA complementary strand synthesis (if high dNTP pools prevent remdesivir-induced polymerisation termination) in vitro (Tchesnokov et al., 2020). Results of clinical trials up to phase III are available for certain conditions. Remdesivir is manufactured by Gilead Sciences.

On May 1, 2020, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an emergency use authorization for the investigational antiviral drug remdesivir for the treatment of suspected or laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 in adults and children hospitalized with severe disease. On May 26, 2020, remdesivir was being made available on the National Health Service (NHS) in the UK through the Early Access to Medicines Scheme. On July 3, 2020, remdesivir was granted conditional marketing authorization by the European Medicines Agency (EMA). On October 22, 2020, the FDA approved the antiviral drug Veklury (remdesivir) for use in adult and pediatric patients 12 years of age and older and weighing at least 40 kilograms (about 88 pounds) for the treatment of COVID-19 requiring hospitalization. On November 20, 2020, WHO issued a conditional recommendation against the use of remdesivir in hospitalized patients, regardless of disease severity, as there is currently no evidence that remdesivir improves survival and other outcomes in these patients.

Remdesivir on DrugBank
Remdesivir on PubChem
Remdesivir on Wikipedia

 

 




 

 


Synonyms

GS-5734


Marketed as

VEKLURY

Structure not available

CCC(CC)COC(=O)[C@H](C)N[P@](=O)(OC[C@@H]1[C@H]([C@H]([C@](O1)(C#N)C2=CC=C3N2N=CN=C3N)O)O)OC4=CC=CC=C4


Supporting references

Link Tested on Impact factor Notes Publication date DB entry date
A cell-based assay to discover inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 RNA dependent RNA polymerase
RdRpol Small molecule In vitro
in vitro 4.10

Inhibited SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in a cell-based assay with an EC50 of 0.67 μM.

Apr/21/2021 May/11/2021
Bromodomain and Extraterminal Protein Inhibitor, Apabetalone (RVX-208), Reduces ACE2 Expression and Attenuates SARS-Cov-2 Infection In Vitro
Small molecule In vitro
in vitro binding assays; Calu-3 cells; SARS-CoV-2 (strain BEI_USA-WA1/2020) 6.08

Attenuated SARS-Cov-2 replication in Calu-3 cells.

Apr/18/2021 Aug/16/2021
Drug repurposing screens reveal cell-type-specific entry pathways and FDA-approved drugs active against SARS-Cov-2
Small molecule In vitro Screening
Huh7.5 cells; Calu-3 cells; primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells; iPSC-derived AT2 cells; SARS-CoV-2 strain USA WA1/2020 8.11

Inhibited SARS-CoV-2 replication in Huh7.5 cells, Calu-3 cells, primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells, or iPSC-derived AT2 cells.

Mar/23/2021 Jun/23/2020
In vitro activity of itraconazole against SARS‐CoV‐2
Small molecule In vitro
Caco‐2 cells; VeroE6‐eGFP cells; SARS-CoV-2 strain hCoV-19/Germany/FrankfurtFFM1/2020; SARS-CoV-2 strain BetaCov/Belgium/GHB-03021/2020 2.02

Inhibited SARS-CoV-2 infection in Caco-2 cells in a dose-dependent manner with an EC50 of 0.3 μM and 0.4 μM in two different assays. At 6.25 μM the compound reduced SARS-CoV-2 RNA loads in Caco-2 cells by ca. 3 orders of magnitude.

Mar/05/2021 Mar/15/2021
Insilico drug repurposing using FDA approved drugs against Membrane protein of SARS-CoV-2
Membrane protein Small molecule In silico
in silico 3.00

Predicted to bind SARS-CoV-2 Membrane protein.

Mar/05/2021 Mar/22/2021
A comparative analysis of SARS-CoV-2 antivirals characterizes 3CLpro inhibitor PF-00835231 as a potential new treatment for COVID-19
3CLpro Small molecule In vitro
ACE2-expressing A549 cells; polarized human airway epithelia cultures; SARS-CoV-2 strain USA-WA1/2020; SARS-CoV-2 isolate USA/NYU-VC-003/2020 4.50

The drug inhibited infection by SARS-CoV-2 isolates in a human epithelial cell line with sub-micromolar EC50s, which were similar or slightly higher than those of PF-00835231.

Feb/23/2021 Mar/02/2021
Comparison of clinically approved molecules on SARS-CoV-2 drug target proteins: a molecular docking study
Small molecule In silico
in silico 0.98

Predicted to target the host furin protease.

Feb/17/2021 Mar/22/2021
A Patient with X-Linked Agammaglobulinemia and COVID-19 Infection Treated with Remdesivir and Convalescent Plasma
Antibody Case report Mixed substance RdRpol Small molecule
An X-linked agammaglobulinemia patient. 6.78

Combined with <a href=

Feb/06/2021 Feb/19/2021
Beneficial effect of combinational methylprednisolone and remdesivir in hamster model of SARS-CoV-2 infection
Small molecule Animal model In vitro
Monocyte-derived macrophages; golden Syrian hamsters; SARS-CoV-2 strain HKU-001a 5.78

When used in a hamster model in combination with <a href=

Feb/04/2021 Feb/12/2021
Remdesivir is a delayed translocation inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 replication
RdRpol Cryo-EM Enzyme assay In vitro Mechanism
in vitro enzyme assay; cryo-EM 15.58

Up to 4 remdesivir monophosphates (RMPs) were observed to be incorporated into the nascent RNA chain, with the fourth being incorporated significantly slower. The fourth RMP was observed not to translocate from the active site of SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), possibly due to steric inhibition between the first RMP and RdRp.

Jan/28/2021 Mar/06/2021
Remdesivir in a pregnant patient with COVID-19 pneumonia
RdRpol Severe severity Small molecule Case report
A pregnant patient with COVID-19 pneumonia 0.27

There was a clinical and laboratory improvement observed after remdesivir treatment in a pregnant (3rd trimester) 39-year-old women suffering from rheumatoid arthritis and Sjögren's syndrome diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia. Dosage: 200 mg IV on day 1; 100 mg daily on days 2-5.

Jan/26/2021 Feb/22/2021
Stenoparib, an Inhibitor of Cellular Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase, Blocks Replication of the SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-NL63 Human Coronaviruses In Vitro
Small molecule In vitro
Vero E6 cells; Calu-3 cells; SARS-CoV-2 (strain USA-WA1/2020) 6.78

At 0.5 μM concentration, if combined with 10 μM

Jan/19/2021 Jan/26/2021
Modeling the Binding Mechanism of Remdesivir, Favilavir, and Ribavirin to SARS-CoV-2 RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase
RdRpol Small molecule Mechanism In silico
in silico 12.69

Remdesivir was computationally modelled to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRpol) activity by delayed RNA chain termination and also destabilization of the RdRpol complex. In contrast to some other nucleotide analogues, it was predicted to base-pair with the complementary stand.

Jan/06/2021 Feb/08/2021
Remdesivir-based therapy improved the recovery of patients with COVID-19 in the multicenter, real-world SARSTer study
RdRpol Small molecule Cohort study
Patients 1.73

The drug was significantly associated with 2-point improvement on an ordinal scale at days 21 and 28. The treated patients experienced fewer adverse effects compared to the <a href=

Dec/31/2020 Feb/12/2021
Remdesivir Strongly Binds to Both RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase and Main Protease of SARS-CoV-2: Evidence from Molecular Simulations
3CLpro RdRpol Small molecule In silico
in silico 2.86

Predicted to bind both the SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and 3C-like protease.

Dec/02/2020 Dec/08/2020
Remdesivir Is Effective in Combating COVID-19 because It Is a Better Substrate than ATP for the Viral RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase
RdRpol Small molecule Enzyme assay In vitro Mechanism
in vitro enzyme assay 4.45

RTP incorporation into nascent RNA by SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase is more efficient than that of ATP.

Nov/27/2020 Dec/10/2020
Compassionate use of remdesivir in children with COVID-19
RdRpol Small molecule Case series
Children with COVID-19 2.31

Successful clinical outcome in majority of children with COVID-19. One death occurred, but the patient received treatment late after symptoms onset. Sample size: 8. Dosage: 200 mg on day 1 and 100 mg on days 2 to 10 (body weight ≥40 kg); 5 mg/kg on day 1 and 2.5 mg on days 2 to 10 (body weight <40 kg).


Nov/16/2020 Nov/28/2020
Human soluble ACE2 improves the effect of remdesivir in SARS‐CoV‐2 infection
RdRpol Protein factor Small molecule In vitro
Vero E6 cells; kidney organoids 10.28

Reduces viral load in cell culture and kidney organoids, especially (at low doses) in combination with

Nov/12/2020 Nov/23/2020
IDentif.AI: Rapidly optimizing combination therapy design against severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS‐Cov‐2) with digital drug development
AI Small molecule In vitro In silico
in silico (AI); AC16 and THLE-2 cells (cytotoxicity); Vero E6 cells 6.09

Based on computational assessment and in vitro validation, remdesivir therapy combined with <a href=

Nov/10/2020 Feb/09/2021
Development of a simple in vitro assay to identify and evaluate nucleotide analogs against SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase
RdRpol Small molecule Enzyme assay In vitro
in vitro enzyme assay 4.68

The remdesivir triphosphate metabolite is incorporated into the nascent SARS-CoV-2 RNA, which leads to delayed chain termination in vitro.

Oct/29/2020 Nov/02/2020
Repurposing Nucleoside Analogs for Human Coronaviruses
Small molecule In vitro
PBM and CEM cells (cytotoxicity only), Huh-7 cells; Vero CCL-81 cells; RD cells; Caco-2 cells; Calu3 cells; SARS-CoV-2 (NR-52281: USA-WA/2020) 4.68

Inhibits SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. It could be cytotoxic in low-micromolar range, however.

Oct/29/2020 Nov/02/2020
MCCS: a novel recognition pattern-based method for fast track discovery of anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs
3CLpro Small molecule In silico
in silico 8.99

In combination with chloroquine. Predicted to inhibit the SARS-CoV-2 3C-like protease.

Oct/20/2020 Nov/10/2020
In silico identification of drug candidates against COVID-19
3CLpro RdRpol
in silico 2.11

Predicted to inhibit the SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.

Oct/20/2020 Oct/29/2020
Antiviral activity and safety of remdesivir against SARS-CoV-2 infection in human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes
RdRpol Small molecule In vitro
Human pluripotent stem cells-derived cardiomyocytes; Vero E6 cells 4.10

Remdesivir is a potent SARS-CoV-2 inhibitor in human pluripotent stem cells-derived cardiomyocytes in vitro (60-fold lower EC50 than in Vero E6 cells). It does exhibit potential cardiotoxicity effects in these cells in concentrations similar to estimated plasma concentrations, however.

Oct/19/2020 Oct/27/2020
Remdesivir Use in Patients Requiring Mechanical Ventilation due to COVID-19
RdRpol Severe severity Small molecule Critical severity Cohort study
Patients on mechanical ventilation 3.66

Significantly increased rates of extubation and hospital discharge. The observed decrease in mortality was only numerical, however. Early administration was observed to be beneficial.

Oct/13/2020 Nov/29/2020
Remdesivir for the Treatment of Covid-19 — Final Report
Randomized controlled double-blind trial
Patients 74.70

remdesivir (200 mg loading dose on day 1, followed by 100 mg daily for up to 9 additional days) was superior to placebo in shortening the time to recovery in adults who were hospitalized with Covid-19 and had evidence of lower respiratory tract infection

Oct/08/2020 Oct/09/2020
Template-dependent inhibition of coronavirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase by remdesivir reveals a second mechanism of action
RdRpol Small molecule Enzyme assay In vitro Mechanism
in vitro enzyme assay 4.24

Besides its primary action on RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, remdesivir disrupts viral RNA complementary strand synthesis (if high dNTP pools prevent remdesivir-induced polymerisation termination) in vitro.

Sep/23/2020 Oct/17/2020
Improvement of Severe COVID-19 in an Elderly Man by Sequential Use of Antiviral Drugs
Small molecule Critical severity Case report
Patient N/A

Clinical improvement and negative PCR result in a patient previously not responding to lopinavir/ritonavir, chloroquine, and favipiravir therapies. Dosage: 200 mg IV on day 1, 100 mg on days 2-10.

Sep/07/2020 Oct/02/2020
Both Boceprevir and GC376 efficaciously inhibit SARS-CoV-2 by targeting its main protease
3CLpro Small molecule Enzyme assay In vitro
Vero cells; enzyme assay 12.12

Manifests additive antiviral effect in combination with GC376 in vitro.

Sep/04/2020 Sep/08/2020
Effectiveness of remdesivir in patients with COVID-19 under mechanical ventilation in an Italian ICU
Small molecule Critical severity Cohort study
Patients 5.44

Significant decrease in mortality rate among patients under mechanical ventilation. Sample size: 25 + 26 control. Dosage: 200 mg IV on day 1, 100 mg daily on days 2-10.


Aug/23/2020 Sep/10/2020
Effect of Remdesivir vs Standard Care on Clinical Status at 11 Days in Patients With Moderate COVID-19
Small molecule Randomized controlled open trial
Patients 45.54

Patients in the 5-day course of remdesivir treatment had statistically significant difference in clinical status compared to the control. The clinical importance of this observation is uncertain, however. No statistically significant difference was observed for secondary endpoints or in the 10-day course of remdesivir treatment versus control group. Sample size: 193 (10-day course) + 191 (5-day course) + 200 control. Dosage: 200 mg IV on day 1, 100 mg on days 2+. Endpoints: (assessed on the 11th day): Clinical scaling status distribution (primary). Adverse effects, clinical improvement (multiple classes) (secondary).

Aug/21/2020 Sep/07/2020
Discovery of SARS-CoV-2 antiviral drugs through large-scale compound repurposing
Small molecule In vitro Screening
Vero E6 cells 42.78 Jul/24/2020 Jul/28/2020
Characterization and Treatment of SARS-CoV-2 in Nasal and Bronchial Human Airway Epithelia
Small molecule In vitro
Vero E6 cells; human airway epithelia cultured cells N/A (new)

Observed antiviral efficacy in both upper and lower respiratory tract in an in vitro model basted on cultured human airway epithelial cells.

Jul/21/2020 Sep/16/2020
Discovery of Synergistic and Antagonistic Drug Combinations against SARS-CoV-2 In Vitro
Preprint In silico
VERO E6 cell cultures

synergistic effect in combination with nitazoxanide, but antagonistic effect in combination with camostat mesilate, NCGC00411883-01 or hydroxychloroquine sulfate

Jul/01/2020 Jul/03/2020
Efficacy and Safety of Remdesivir for COVID-19 Treatment: An Analysis of Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trials
Preprint Randomized controlled double-blind trial
Patients

significantly increased the discharge rate and decreased the occurence of serious adverse events and mortality

Jun/29/2020 Jun/30/2020
SARS-CoV-2 infection of primary human lung epithelium for COVID-19 modeling and drug discovery
Preprint Screening
alveolar organoids Jun/29/2020 Jun/30/2020
A nanoluciferase SARS-CoV-2 for rapid neutralization testing and screening of anti-infective drugs for COVID-19
Preprint Screening
human A549-ACE2 cells Jun/23/2020 Jun/29/2020
RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase From SARS-CoV-2. Mechanism Of Reaction And Inhibition By Remdesivir.
Preprint
in silico Jun/21/2020 Jun/22/2020
Oral drug repositioning candidates and synergistic remdesivir combinations for the prophylaxis and treatment of COVID-19
Preprint In vitro Screening
HeLa-ACE2 cells

synergistic effect in combination with riboprine or 10-deazaaminopterin

Jun/16/2020 Jun/22/2020
Remdesivir but not famotidine inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication in human pluripotent stem cell-derived intestinal organoids
Preprint
human pluripotent stem cell-derived intestinal organoids Jun/11/2020 Jun/12/2020
Evaluating the potential of different inhibitors on RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2: A molecular modeling approach
RdRpol Small molecule In silico
in silico 0.55 (2018)

Predicted to inhibit the SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.

May/30/2020 Sep/16/2020
Morphological Cell Profiling of SARS-CoV-2 Infection Identifies Drug Repurposing Candidates for COVID-19
Preprint
Huh7 cells May/27/2020 May/28/2020
Simeprevir suppresses SARS-CoV-2 replication and synergizes with remdesivir
Preprint
VERO E6 cell cultures

better in combination with simeprevir

May/26/2020 May/27/2020
Impacts of remdesivir on dynamics and efficacy stratified by the severity of COVID- 19: a simulated two-arm controlled study
Preprint
Patients

 most effective for medium-risk patients

May/22/2020 May/25/2020
Remdesivir for the Treatment of Covid-19 — Preliminary Report Patients

Remdesivir was superior to placebo in shortening the time to recovery in adults hospitalized with Covid-19 and evidence of lower respiratory tract infection. However, given high mortality despite the use of remdesivir, it is clear that treatment with an antiviral drug alone is not likely to be sufficient.

May/22/2020 May/26/2020
Comparative analysis of antiviral efficacy of FDA-approved drugs against SARS-CoV-2 in human lung cells: Nafamostat is the most potent antiviral drug candidate
Preprint
Calu-3 human airway epithelial cells

lower IC50 value in Calu-3 cells than VERO E6 cells

May/12/2020 May/13/2020
Efficacy of remdesivir in COVID-19 patients with a simulated two-arm controlled study Patients

remdesivir treatment led to a statistically significantly 29% reduction of death from COVID-19

May/08/2020 May/13/2020
IDentif.AI: Artificial Intelligence Pinpoints Remdesivir in Combination with Ritonavir and Lopinavir as an Optimal Regimen Against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in silico

optimal combination therapy against SARS-CoV-2 was comprised of remdesivir, ritonavir, and lopinavir

May/08/2020 May/13/2020
Using Integrated Computational Approaches to Identify Safe and Rapid Treatment for SARS -CoV- 2 in silico

drug which can construct a covalent bond with Cys145 inside binding site SARS-CoV-2 main protease

May/04/2020 May/07/2020
Evaluation of 19 antiviral drugs against SARS-CoV-2 Infection
Preprint
VERO E6 cell cultures

the most effective antiviral

Apr/29/2020 Apr/30/2020
Remdesivir potently inhibits SARS-CoV-2 in human lung cells and chimeric SARS-CoV expressing the SARS-CoV-2 RNA polymerase in mice. mice Apr/27/2020 Apr/28/2020
Remdesivir potently inhibits SARS-CoV-2 in human lung cells and chimeric SARS-CoV expressing the SARS-CoV-2 RNA polymerase in mice. human lung cells Apr/27/2020 Apr/28/2020
Role of 1'-Ribose Cyano Substitution for Remdesivir to Effectively Inhibit both Nucleotide Addition and Proofreading in SARS-CoV-2 Viral RNA Replication VERO E6 cell cultures Apr/27/2020 Apr/28/2020
Clinical benefit of remdesivir in rhesus macaques infected with SARS-CoV-2 rhesus macaques Apr/22/2020 Apr/29/2020
Evaluation of Flavonoids as 2019-nCoV Cell Entry Inhibitor Through Molecular Docking and Pharmacological Analysis
Preprint In silico
in silico Apr/06/2020 Apr/14/2020
SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV differ in their cell tropism and drug sensitivity profiles
Preprint
CaCo-2 cells

better in combination with omeprazole

Apr/05/2020 May/19/2020
First Case of 2019 Novel Coronavirus in the United States Patients Mar/05/2020 Mar/30/2020
Anti-HCV, nucleotide inhibitors, repurposing against COVID-19. in silico Feb/28/2020 Mar/30/2020
The antiviral compound remdesivir potently inhibits RNA-dependent RNA polymerase from Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Similar viruses Feb/24/2020 Mar/30/2020
Discovering drugs to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). in silico Feb/22/2020 Mar/30/2020
[Potential antiviral therapeutics for 2019 Novel Coronavirus]. Similar viruses Feb/05/2020 Mar/30/2020
Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro VERO E6 cell cultures

Potently blocked virus infection at low-micromolar concentration

Feb/04/2020 Mar/30/2020

Contradictory references

Link Tested on Impact factor Notes Publication date DB entry date
Clinical outcomes of using remdesivir in patients with moderate to severe COVID-19: A prospective randomised study
RdRpol Severe severity Small molecule Moderate severity
Non-mechanically ventilated inpatients. 1.31 (2018)

No statistically significant difference was observed in mortality or time to recovery between the treatment group and the control group. Sample size: 34 + 36 control. Dosage: 200 mg IV on day 1; 100 mg daily on days 2-5.

Mar/20/2021 Apr/24/2021
Repurposed antiviral drugs for COVID-19; interim WHO SOLIDARITY trial results
Preprint
Patients

little or no effect on hospitalized COVID-19, as indicated by overall mortality, initiation of ventilation and duration of hospital stay

Oct/15/2020 Oct/16/2020
Remdesivir failure with SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase mutation in a B-cell immunodeficient patient with protracted Covid-19
RdRpol Small molecule Case report Mixed substance
A post-rituximab B-cell immunodeficiency and persistent SARS-CoV-2 viremia patient. 8.31

Did not lead to improvement in a patient infected by a SARS-CoV-2 strain with D484Y substitution in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase with a post-rituximab B-cell immunodeficiency and persistent SARS-CoV-2 viremia. Dosage: 200mg on day 1; 100 mg on days 2-5.

Sep/29/2020 Oct/24/2020
Characteristics and outcomes of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome related to COVID-19 in Belgian and French Intensive Care Units according to antiviral strategies. The COVADIS multicenter observational study.
Severe severity Preprint Moderate severity
Patients

did not observe a benefit of treating moderate to severe Covid-19 patients with any specific antiviral treatment

Jul/07/2020 Jul/09/2020
Remdesivir in adults with severe COVID-19: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial Patients 60.39 2019

not associated with statistically significant clinical benefits

Apr/29/2020 May/26/2020

Clinical trials

ID Title Status Phase Start date Completion date
NCT05041907 Finding Treatments for COVID-19: A Trial of Antiviral Pharmacodynamics in Early Symptomatic COVID-19 (PLATCOV) Not yet recruiting Phase 2 Sep/01/2021 Aug/01/2023
NCT04988035 ACTIV-5 / Big Effect Trial (BET-C) for the Treatment of COVID-19 Recruiting Phase 2 Jul/21/2021 Dec/17/2021
NCT04978259 SOLIDARITY Finland Long COVID-19 Recruiting Phase 4 Jul/21/2021 Dec/31/2023
NCT04970719 Baricitinib in Hospitalized Covid-19 Patients With Diabetes Mellitus Recruiting Phase 3 Jul/10/2021 Dec/01/2021
NCT04944082 Remdesivir- Ivermectin Combination Therapy in Severe Covid-19 Not yet recruiting Phase 4 Jul/01/2021 Dec/31/2021
NCT04784559 Trial to Determine the Efficacy/Safety of Plitidepsin vs Control in Patients With Moderate COVID-19 Infection Recruiting Phase 3 Jun/04/2021 Nov/01/2021
NCT04647669 World Health Organization (WHO) COVID-19 Solidarity Trial for COVID-19 Treatments Not yet recruiting Phase 3 Jun/01/2021 Dec/31/2021
NCT04843761 ACTIV-3b: Therapeutics for Severely Ill Inpatients With COVID-19 Recruiting Phase 3 Apr/20/2021 Apr/01/2023
NCT04391309 COVID-19 and Anti-CD14 Treatment Trial Recruiting Phase 2 Apr/12/2021 Feb/01/2022
NCT04854837 Safety of Remdesivir Treatment in COVID-19 Patients Requiring Hemodialysis Recruiting Apr/12/2021 Nov/01/2021
NCT04832880 Factorial Randomized Trial of Rendesivir and Baricitinib Plus Dexamethasone for COVID-19 (the AMMURAVID Trial) Not yet recruiting Phase 3 Apr/06/2021 Dec/01/2022
NCT04745351 Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Remdesivir in Participants With Severely Reduced Kidney Function Who Are Hospitalized for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Recruiting Phase 3 Mar/31/2021 Jul/01/2022
NCT04865237 SARS-CoV-2 Human Challenge Characterisation Study Active, not recruiting Not Applicable Mar/06/2021 Jun/03/2022
NCT04582266 PK and Safety of Remdesivir for Treatment of COVID-19 in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women in the US Recruiting Feb/12/2021 Jan/15/2022
NCT04713176 Efficacy and Safety of DWJ1248 With Remdesivir in Severe COVID-19 Patients Recruiting Phase 3 Feb/02/2021 Jun/30/2021
NCT04847622 Study to Evaluate the Clinical Outcomes in Adults With Covid-19 Who Have Been Treated With Remdesivir. Recruiting Feb/01/2021 Jun/30/2021
NCT04728880 Remdesivir in Adults With Covid-19: Mansoura University Hospital Experience Recruiting Jan/26/2021 May/30/2021
NCT04694612 Efficacy of Favipiravir in Treatment of Mild & Moderate COVID-19 Infection in Nepal Recruiting Phase 3 Jan/01/2021 May/31/2021
NCT04727775 Antiviral Drugs on the Treatment of SARS-CoV-2 Recruiting Dec/01/2020 Dec/25/2021
NCT04640168 Adaptive COVID-19 Treatment Trial 4 (ACTT-4) Active, not recruiting Phase 3 Nov/24/2020 Jun/30/2021
NCT04647695 IFN-beta 1b and Remdesivir for COVID19 Recruiting Phase 2 Nov/20/2020 Sep/30/2021
NCT04669990 Remdesivir and Convalescent Plasma Therapy for Treatment of COVID-19 Infection in Nepal : A Registry Study Recruiting Nov/19/2020 Nov/19/2021
NCT04738045 Comparison of Remdesivir Versus Lopinavir/ Ritonavir and Remdesivir Combination in COVID-19 Patients Recruiting Phase 4 Nov/01/2020 Apr/01/2021
NCT04583969 ACTIV-5 / Big Effect Trial (BET-B) for the Treatment of COVID-19 Recruiting Phase 2 Oct/19/2020 Dec/31/2021
NCT04593940 Immune Modulators for Treating COVID-19 Recruiting Phase 3 Oct/15/2020 Sep/01/2022
NCT04583956 ACTIV-5 / Big Effect Trial (BET-A) for the Treatment of COVID-19 Active, not recruiting Phase 2 Oct/14/2020 Dec/31/2021
NCT04610541 REMdesivir-HU Clinical Study and Severe Covid-19 Patients Active, not recruiting Phase 3 Oct/12/2020 Nov/30/2021
NCT04546581 Inpatient Treatment of COVID-19 With Anti-Coronavirus Immunoglobulin (ITAC) Completed Phase 3 Oct/08/2020 May/21/2021
NCT04779047 Comparative Therapeutic Efficacy and Safety of Different Antiviral and Anti Inflammatory Drugs in COVID-19 Patients. Recruiting Phase 4 Oct/01/2020 Apr/05/2021
NCT04501952 Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Remdesivir (GS-5734™) Treatment of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in an Outpatient Setting Terminated Phase 3 Sep/18/2020 May/06/2021
NCT04480333 Safety, Tolerability and Pharmacokinetics of Inhaled Nanoparticle Formulation of Remdesivir (GS-5734) and NA-831 Recruiting Phase 1 Sep/15/2020 Mar/31/2021
NCT04539262 Study in Participants With Early Stage Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) to Evaluate the Safety, Efficacy, and Pharmacokinetics of Remdesivir Administered by Inhalation Completed Phase 1|Phase 2 Sep/14/2020 Mar/22/2021
NCT04693026 Efficacy of Ramdicivir and Baricitinib for the Treatment of Severe COVID 19 Patients Recruiting Phase 3 Sep/10/2020 Mar/05/2021
NCT04596839 Antiviral Activity and Safety of Remdesivir in Bangladeshi Patients With Severe Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Completed Phase 2 Sep/04/2020 Apr/30/2021
NCT04678739 Efficacy and Safety of Remdesivir and Tociluzumab for the Management of Severe COVID-19: A Randomized Controlled Trial Completed Phase 3 Aug/15/2020 Feb/10/2021
NCT04492475 Adaptive COVID-19 Treatment Trial 3 (ACTT-3) Completed Phase 3 Aug/05/2020 Dec/21/2020
NCT04501978 ACTIV-3: Therapeutics for Inpatients With COVID-19 Recruiting Phase 3 Aug/04/2020 Jul/01/2022
NCT04871633 Effectiveness of Remedesvir in COVID-19 Patients Presenting at Mayo Hospital Lahore Completed Not Applicable Aug/01/2020 Dec/30/2020
NCT04488081 I-SPY COVID-19 TRIAL: An Adaptive Platform Trial for Critically Ill Patients Recruiting Phase 2 Jul/31/2020 Nov/01/2022
NCT04570982 Clinical Protocol for Convalescent Plasma and Remdesivir Therapy in Nepal Recruiting Jul/30/2020 Dec/30/2020
NCT04853901 Remdesivir Efficacy In Management Of COVID-19 Patients Completed Phase 3 Jul/27/2020 Mar/01/2021
NCT04431453 Study to Evaluate the Safety, Tolerability, Pharmacokinetics, and Efficacy of Remdesivir (GS-5734™) in Participants From Birth to < 18 Years of Age With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Recruiting Phase 2|Phase 3 Jul/21/2020 Feb/01/2022
NCT04575064 An International Randomized Trial of Additional Treatments for COVID-19 in Hospitalized Patients Who Are All Receiving the Local Standard of Care - WHO-SOLIDARITY-GERMANY Active, not recruiting Phase 2|Phase 3 Jun/29/2020 Nov/01/2022
NCT04410354 Study of Merimepodib in Combination With Remdesivir in Adult Patients With Advanced COVID-19 Terminated Phase 2 Jun/16/2020 Dec/01/2020
NCT04345419 Remdesivir Efficacy in Coronavirus Disease Completed Phase 2|Phase 3 Jun/16/2020 Dec/01/2020
NCT04409262 A Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Remdesivir Plus Tocilizumab Compared With Remdesivir Plus Placebo in Hospitalized Participants With Severe COVID-19 Pneumonia Completed Phase 3 Jun/16/2020 Mar/08/2021
NCT04560231 Remdesivir in COVID-19 Lahore General Hospital Recruiting Early Phase 1 Jun/01/2020 Nov/30/2020
NCT04401579 Adaptive COVID-19 Treatment Trial 2 (ACTT-2) Completed Phase 3 May/08/2020 Jul/31/2020
NCT04365725 Multicenter, Retrospective Study of the Effects of Remdesivir in the Treatment of Severe Covid-19 Infections Completed May/05/2020 Jun/12/2020
NCT05024006 Public Health Emergency: SOLIDARITY TRIAL Philippines Active, not recruiting Not Applicable Apr/23/2020 Dec/31/2021
NCT04351724 Austrian CoronaVirus Adaptive Clinical Trial (COVID-19) Recruiting Phase 2|Phase 3 Apr/16/2020 Mar/31/2022
NCT04349410 The Fleming [FMTVDM] Directed CoVid-19 Treatment Protocol Completed Phase 2|Phase 3 Apr/11/2020 Sep/14/2020
NCT04492501 Investigational Treatments for COVID-19 in Tertiary Care Hospital of Pakistan Completed Not Applicable Apr/01/2020 Jul/20/2020
NCT04321616 The Efficacy of Different Anti-viral Drugs in COVID 19 Infected Patients Recruiting Phase 2|Phase 3 Mar/28/2020 Nov/01/2020
NCT04315948 Trial of Treatments for COVID-19 in Hospitalized Adults Recruiting Phase 3 Mar/22/2020 Mar/01/2023
NCT04330690 Treatments for COVID-19: Canadian Arm of the SOLIDARITY Trial Recruiting Phase 2 Mar/18/2020 May/18/2022
NCT04292730 Study to Evaluate the Safety and Antiviral Activity of Remdesivir (GS-5734™) in Participants With Moderate Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Compared to Standard of Care Treatment Completed Phase 3 Mar/15/2020 Jun/26/2020
NCT04292899 Study to Evaluate the Safety and Antiviral Activity of Remdesivir (GS-5734™) in Participants With Severe Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Completed Phase 3 Mar/06/2020 Jun/30/2020
NCT04280705 Adaptive COVID-19 Treatment Trial (ACTT) Completed Phase 3 Feb/21/2020 May/21/2020
NCT04252664 A Trial of Remdesivir in Adults With Mild and Moderate COVID-19 Suspended Phase 3 Feb/12/2020 Apr/27/2020
NCT04257656 A Trial of Remdesivir in Adults With Severe COVID-19 Terminated Phase 3 Feb/06/2020 Apr/10/2020
NCT04302766 Expanded Access Remdesivir (RDV; GS-5734™) No longer available Jan/01/1970 Jan/01/1970
NCT04323761 Expanded Access Treatment Protocol: Remdesivir (RDV; GS-5734) for the Treatment of SARS-CoV2 (CoV) Infection (COVID-19) Approved for marketing Jan/01/1970 Jan/01/1970