A corticoid substance class.

Phase of research

Potential treatment - clinical evidence

How it helps

Other treatment

Drug status

Used to treat other disease

Supporting references
Contradictory references
AI-suggested references
Clinical trials

General information

Glucocorticoids on Wikipedia


Supporting references

Link Tested on Impact factor Notes Publication date
Clinical Characteristics of 138 Hospitalized Patients With 2019 Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia in Wuhan, China.

44.9 % of patients received this therapy

Effect of Systemic Glucocorticoids on Mortality or Mechanical Ventilation in Patients With COVID-19
Small molecule Cohort study
Patients 2.08

Patients with CRP levels >20 mg/dL might benefit from use of glucocorticoids, wheres grucocorticoid treatment might harm patients with CRP levels <10 mg/dL. Sample size: 140 + 1,666 control.

Glucocorticoid therapy does not delay viral clearance in COVID-19 patients
Small molecule Cohort study
Patients 2.69

Glucocorticoid treatment does not impede the SARS-CoV-2 viral clearance or change peripheral lymphocyte counts. Sample size: 684. Dosage: Most common methylprednisolone 1–2 mg/kg daily for 3 to 5.

Glucocorticoid benefits the ventilatory function of sever/critical COVID-19 patients
Severe severity Small molecule Critical severity Cohort study
Patients 4.84

There was no significant difference in oxygen supply duration in severe/critical patients or patients with CRP above 20 mg/L at the baseline who were treated with glucocorticoids compared to the respective control group even though their general clinical condition prior to the glucocorticoid therapy was more severe. From this the authors imply that glucocorticoid therapy provides some benefit for severe/critical COVID-19 patients. The data did not support such conclusion for non-severe patients or for patients with CRP below 20 mg/L at the baseline. Sample size: 174 + 621 control (non-severe cohort); 254 + 398 control (severe cohort).

Effectiveness of glucocorticoids in patients hospitalized for severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia
Severe severity Small molecule Cohort study
Severe COVID-19 pneumonia patients 1.64

Patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia might benefit from higher doses of glucocorticoids (≥250 mg of prednisone equivalent daily). Sample size: 47 (lower glucocorticoid dosing) + 56 (higher glucocorticoid dosing) + 156 control. Dosage: Less than 250 mg of maximum prednisone equivalent daily or 250 mg or more of maximum prednisone equivalent daily for 3–5 days.

Glucocorticoids with low-dose anti-IL1 anakinra rescue in severe non-ICU COVID-19 infection: A cohort study
Small molecule Cohort study
Non-ICU patients 3.24

Glucocorticoids with or without anakinra decreased death rate in the cohort of non-ICU patients at the stage of cytokine release caused by COVID-19. Sample size: 108 + 63 control. Dosage: 120 mg of methylprednisolone daily for three days followed by dose de-escalation with methylprednisolone or equivalents. Main outcome: Death within 15 days of hospitalization.


AI-suggested references

Link Publication date
Tocilizumab or glucocorticoids treatment for patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia: An observational study.
Pharmacological treatment in pregnant women with moderate symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia.
Efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines in patients taking immunosuppressants.
Effect of glucocorticoid therapy on the prognosis of patients with severe and critical COVID-19: a single-center retrospective cohort study.
Feasibility of Convalescent Plasma Therapy in Kidney Transplant Recipients With Severe COVID-19: A Single-Center Prospective Cohort Study.
Severe COVID-19 Complicated by Cerebral Venous Thrombosis in a Newborn Successfully Treated with Remdesivir, Glucocorticoids, and Hyperimmune Plasma.
Ruxolitinib as adjunctive therapy for secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: A case series.
Response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in systemic autoimmune rheumatic disease depends on immunosuppressive regimen: a matched, prospective cohort study.
Successful Use of Certolizumab Pegol for Refractory Psoriatic Arthritis Triggered by COVID-19 Infection
Recent research on the application of biologics in the treatment of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children after SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Antibody Response to mRNA Vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 with Chronic Kidney Disease, Hemodialysis, and after Kidney Transplantation
Glucocorticoids Induce Partial Remission of Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis but Not Interstitial Nephritis in COVID-19 Acute Kidney Injury in an APOL1 Low-Risk Genotype White Patient
Antibody responses to BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine and their predictors among healthcare workers in a tertiary referral hospital in Japan.
Effects of Short-Term Low-Dose Glucocorticoids for Patients with Mild COVID-19.
Dexamethasone in Hospitalized Patients with Covid-19 : Preliminary Report
Tocilizumab in patients with severe COVID-19: a single-center observational analysis
Tocilizumab improves oxidative stress and endothelial glycocalyx: A mechanism that may explain the effects of biological treatment on COVID-19.
Intranasal dexamethasone: a new clinical trial for the control of inflammation and neuroinflammation in COVID-19 patients
Ciclesonide activates glucocorticoid signaling in neonatal rat lung but does not trigger adverse effects in the cortex and cerebellum.
Risk factors of mortality and contribution of treatment in patients infected with COVID-19: a retrospective propensity score matched study
[Glucocorticoids alone versus tocilizumab alone or glucocorticoids plus tocilizumab in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and mild inflammation].
Effect of High-Titer Convalescent Plasma on Progression to Severe Respiratory Failure or Death in Hospitalized Patients With COVID-19 Pneumonia
An Acute Exacerbation of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis After BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 Vaccination
Clinical efficacy of glucocorticoid on the treatment of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia: A single-center experience.
The effect of glucocorticoids on mortality in severe COVID-19 patients
Impact of corticosteroids and immunosuppressive therapies on symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection in a large cohort of patients with chronic inflammatory arthritis
Glucocorticoids Should Be Used With Caution in Patients With SARS-CoV-2.
Drug Repurposing Strategy (DRS): Emerging Approach to Identify Potential Therapeutics for Treatment of Novel Coronavirus Infection
Intravenous immunoglobulin as a therapeutic option for patients with worsening COVID-19 under rituximab
Repurposing existing drugs for COVID-19: an endocrinology perspective.
A complex COVID-19 case with rheumatoid arthritis treated with tocilizumab
Historically controlled comparison of glucocorticoids with or without tocilizumab versus supportive care only in patients with COVID-19-associated cytokine storm syndrome: results of the CHIC study
Effect of Immunosuppression on the Immunogenicity of mRNA Vaccines to SARS-CoV-2
Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in an Adult (MIS-A) Successfully Treated with Anakinra and Glucocorticoids
Serious bradycardia and remdesivir for coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19): a new safety concerns
Date of Admission during COVID-19 Pandemic Impacted Patient Outcomes in Addition to the Higher Efficacy of Tocilizumab Plus High-Dose Corticosteroid Therapy Compared to Tocilizumab Alone
Antiviral Effect of Budesonide against SARS-CoV-2.
Immunogenicity and safety of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine in adult patients with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases and in the general population: a multicentre study
Successful Sequential Treatment for Severe Asthma Coexisting COVID-19 via Budesonide/Glycopyrrolate/Formoterol Fumarate.
Pharmacological Modulators of Autophagy as a Potential Strategy for the Treatment of COVID-19.
Immunogenicity and safety of inactivated and mRNA COVID-19 vaccines in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus
Efficacy of synthetic glucocorticoids in COVID-19 endothelites
Hypogammaglobulinemia following COVID-19 infection in a patient on maintenance rituximab
Ac2-26 mimetic peptide of annexin A1 to treat severe COVID-19: A hypothesis.
Long-term outcome of short-course high-dose glucocorticoids for SARS: a 17-year follow-up in SARS survivors
Glucocorticoids alone versus tocilizumab alone or glucocorticoids plus tocilizumab in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and mild inflammation.
Real-world evidence of the use of glucocorticoids for severe COVID-19
Clinical evidence of an interferon-glucocorticoid therapeutic synergy in COVID-19
Association between high-dose steroid therapy, respiratory function, and time to discharge in patients with COVID-19: Cohort study.
COVID-19: IgG seroconversion under intensive glucocorticoid treatment in a high-risk patient with minimal change disease.
Tofacitinib reduces mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 Tofacitinib in COVID-19.
Baseline use of hydroxychloroquine or immunosuppressive drugs and the risk of coronavirus disease 2019
Intravenous immunoglobulin-based adjuvant therapy for severe COVID-19: a single-center retrospective cohort study
An in silico analysis identifies drugs potentially modulating the cytokine storm triggered by SARS-CoV-2 infection
Coronavirus Disease 2019 Outcomes Among Recipients of Anti-CD20 Monoclonal Antibodies for Immune-Mediated Diseases: A Comparative Cohort Study
Impact of dexamethasone on SARS-CoV-2 concentration kinetics and antibody response in hospitalized COVID-19 patients: results from a prospective observational study.
The role of immunomodulatory medications in the treatment of COVID-19
[Effectiveness of glucocorticoids in patients hospitalized for severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia].
Clinical characteristics and outcomes among hospitalized adults with severe COVID-19 admitted to a tertiary medical center and receiving antiviral, antimalarials, glucocorticoids, or immunomodulation with tocilizumab or cyclosporine: A retrospective obser
Effectiveness of corticoid pulses in patients with cytokine storm syndrome induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Revisiting activity of some glucocorticoids as a potential inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 main protease: theoretical study.
Baidu Jieduan granules, traditional Chinese medicine, in the treatment of moderate coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19): study protocol for an open-label, randomized controlled clinical trial.
Tofacitinib in Patients Hospitalized with Covid-19 Pneumonia.
Effectiveness of glucocorticoid therapy in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019: protocol of a randomized controlled trial
Secondary Immune Thrombocytopenia Associated With Asymptomatic COVID-19 Successfully Managed With Intravenous Immunoglobulin and Glucocorticoids
[Association between high-dose steroid therapy, respiratory function, and time to discharge in patients with COVID-19: Cohort study].

Clinical trials

ID Title Status Phase Start date Completion date
NCT04438980 Glucocorticoids in COVID-19 (CORTIVID) Completed Phase 3 May/15/2020 Apr/09/2021
  • Alternative id - CORTIVID
  • Interventions - Drug: Methylprednisolone|Other: Placebo
  • Study type - Interventional
  • Study results - No Results Available
  • Locations - Hospital Sant Joan Despí Moisès Broggi, Sant Joan Despí, Barcelona, Spain|Complejo Hospitalario de Navarra, Pamplona, Navarra, Spain
  • Study designs - Allocation: Randomized|Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment|Masking: Double (Participant, Investigator)|Primary Purpose: Treatment
  • Enrollment - 72
  • Age - 18 Years to 75 Years   (Adult, Older Adult)
  • Outcome measures - Proportion of patients developing treatment failure|Mortality at day 28|Proportion of patients requiring ICU admission|Proportion of patients requiring rescue-therapy with tocilizumab|Length of hospital stay|Proportion of severe adverse events|Proportion of bacterial, fungal or opportunistic infections|Evolution of inflammatory biomarkers related to COVID-19|Proportion of SARS-CoV-2 clearance.