Full-length Spike protein

An experimental COVID-19 protein vaccine.

Phase of research

Potential treatment - pre-clinical evidence

How it helps


Drug status


Supporting references
Contradictory references
AI-suggested references
Clinical trials

General information

Full-length Spike protein refers to SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein (adjuvanted) experimentally used as an immunogen (Kim et al., 2021).


Supporting references

Link Tested on Impact factor Notes Publication date
Immunogenicity and Neutralizing Activity Comparison of SARS-CoV-2 Spike Full-Length and Subunit Domain Proteins in Young Adult and Old-Aged Mice
Spike protein Protein factor Animal model
BALB/c mice; (lentiviral) SARS-CoV-2 Spike-pseudotyped virus 4.09

The full-length version displayed higher immunogenicity compared to S1 or S2 domains only in mice. To induce sufficient immune response in aged mice, high-dose or adjuvanted (experimentally with AS01-like liposome adjuvant) version of the formulation was used.


AI-suggested references

Link Publication date
SARS-CoV-2 Neutralizing Antibody Responses towards Full-Length Spike Protein and the Receptor-Binding Domain.
Humoral Responses Against SARS-CoV-2 and Variants of Concern After mRNA Vaccines in Patients With Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.
Non-clinical immunogenicity, biodistribution and toxicology evaluation of a chimpanzee adenovirus-based COVID-19 vaccine in rat and rhesus macaque
Murine Monoclonal Antibodies against the Receptor Binding Domain of SARS-CoV-2 Neutralize Authentic Wild-Type SARS-CoV-2 as Well as B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 Viruses and Protect In Vivo in a Mouse Model in a Neutralization-Dependent Manner
Efficacy and Safety of the mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine
Enoxaparin and Pentosan Polysulfate Bind to the SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein and Human ACE2 Receptor, Inhibiting Vero Cell Infection
A vesicular stomatitis virus-based prime-boost vaccination strategy induces potent and protective neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2
Elucidating Interactions Between SARS-CoV-2 Trimeric Spike Protein and ACE2 Using Homology Modeling and Molecular Dynamics Simulations
Isolation and Characterization of Mouse Monoclonal Antibodies That Neutralize SARS-CoV-2 and Its Variants of Concern Alpha, Beta, Gamma and Delta by Binding Conformational Epitopes of Glycosylated RBD With High Potency
Cellular and Humoral Immune Responses in Mice Immunized with Vaccinia Virus Expressing the SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein.
BNT162b2 mRNA SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine Elicits High Avidity and Neutralizing Antibodies in Healthcare Workers.
Coronavirus-Specific Antibody Cross Reactivity in Rhesus Macaques following SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination and Infection
Safety and Efficacy of the BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine through 6 Months
Serological Test to Determine Exposure to SARS-CoV-2: ELISA Based on the Receptor-Binding Domain of the Spike Protein (S-RBDN318-V510) Expressed in Escherichia coli
Robust neutralization assay based on SARS-CoV-2 S-protein-bearing vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) pseudovirus and ACE2-overexpressing BHK21 cells
SARS-COV-2 spike binding to ACE2 in living cells monitored by TR-FRET.
Distinct antibody and memory B cell responses in SARS-CoV-2 naive and recovered individuals following mRNA vaccination
Comparison of Wild Type DNA Sequence of Spike Protein from SARS-CoV-2 with Optimized Sequence on The Induction of Protective Responses Against SARS-Cov-2 Challenge in Mouse Model
ChAdOx1-S adenoviral vector vaccine applied intranasally elicits superior mucosal immunity compared to the intramuscular route of vaccination
A Novel Purification Procedure for Active Recombinant Human DPP4 and the Inability of DPP4 to Bind SARS-CoV-2
BNT162b2 vaccine induces antibody release in saliva: a possible role for mucosal viral protection?
Potency, toxicity and protection evaluation of PastoCoAd candidate vaccines: Novel preclinical mix and match rAd5 S, rAd5 RBD-N and SOBERANA dimeric-RBD protein
Structural analysis of full-length SARS-CoV-2 spike protein from an advanced vaccine candidate

Clinical trials

ID Title Status Phase Start date Completion date
NCT04998240 Mix and Match Heterologous Prime-Boost Study Using Approved COVID-19 Vaccines in Mozambique Not yet recruiting Phase 2 Sep/01/2021 Oct/30/2022
  • Alternative id - IVI-ECOVA-02
  • Interventions - Biological: BBIBP-CorV - Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (Vero cell)|Biological: AZD1222 (replication-deficient Ad type 5 vector expressing full-length spike protein)
  • Study type - Interventional
  • Study results - No Results Available
  • Locations - Centro de Investigação e Treino em Saúde da Polana Caniço - Instituto Nacional de Saúde, Maputo, Mozambique
  • Study designs - Allocation: Randomized|Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment|Masking: Single (Outcomes Assessor)|Primary Purpose: Prevention
  • Enrollment - 360
  • Age - 18 Years to 65 Years   (Adult, Older Adult)
  • Outcome measures - Geometric Mean Titers (GMTs) of anti-SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies|Incidence of SAEs and AESI observed at any time point during the entire study period|Incidence of solicited reactions within 7 days (local reactions) and 14 days (systemic reactions)|Incidence of unsolicited adverse events that are within 28 days after each vaccination|Incidence of changes in laboratory safety measures from baseline to day 28 after each vaccination|Geometric Mean Titers (GMTs) and Geometric Mean Fold Rise (GMFR)