A trihydroxyflavone.

Phase of research

Potential treatment - pre-clinical evidence

How it helps


Drug status

Natural product

Supporting references
Contradictory references
AI-suggested references
Clinical trials

General information

Baicalein is a natural trihydroxyflavone bioactive compound (with e. g. anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, or hormone antagonist properties) (ChEBI). It potentially acts against SARS-CoV-2 infection through inhibition of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation via mitochondrial permeability transition pore activity modulation (Huang et al., 2020).

Baicalein on PubChem
Baicalein on Wikipedia


Structure image - Baicalein


Supporting references

Link Tested on Impact factor Notes Publication date
Discovery of baicalin and baicalein as novel, natural product inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 3CL protease in vitro
in vitro Apr/14/2020
Potential Treatment of Chinese and Western Medicine Targeting Nsp14 of SARS-CoV-2
nsp14 Small molecule In silico
in silico 2.67

Predicted to bind the SARS-CoV-2 nsp14 protein.

The comprehensive study on the therapeutic effects of baicalein for the treatment of COVID-19 in vivo and in vitro
Small molecule Animal model In vitro
Vero E6 cells; hACE2 mice; BALB/c mice; male SD rats (pharmacokinetics). 4.96

Reduction in SARS-CoV-2-induced cell damage assessed by changes in morphology in vitro at concentrations of 0.1 μM or more (which were achievable in rats). Inhibition of viral replication in lungs, relief of lung lesions, and reduction of weigth loss in hACE2 mice. In a LPS-induced acute lung injury murine model, bacalein improved respiratory function and reduced inflammatory markers.

Baicalein inhibits SARS-CoV-2/VSV replication with interfering mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in a mPTP dependent manner
Small molecule In vitro Mechanism
Vero E6 cells

Inhibits SARS-CoV-2 infection in sub-toxic concentrations in vitro. Reduces oxygen consumption through partial oxidative phosphorylation inhibition, potentially via mitochondrial permeability transition pore regulation.

Scutellaria baicalensis extract and baicalein inhibit replication of SARS-CoV-2 and its 3C-like protease in vitro
Small molecule Enzyme assay In vitro In silico
in silico; in vitro enzyme assay; Vero cells; HEK293T cell lysates; SARS-CoV-2 isolate C-Tan-nCoV Wuhan strain 01 4.31

Inhibits SARS-CoV-2 3C-like protease in vitro with IC50 of 0.39 µM and blocks SARS-CoV-2 replication with EC50 of 2.9 µM in Vero cells. It acts mainly at the post-entry stages of infection.

Baicalein and Baicalin Inhibit SARS-CoV-2 RNA-Dependent-RNA Polymerase
RdRpol Biophysical assay Small molecule Enzyme assay In vitro In silico
in silico; in vitro biophysical assay; in vitro enzyme assay; Vero CCL-81 cells; SARS-CoV-2 strain USA-WA/2020; (VSV) SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus 4.13

Inhibited SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (more potently than baicalin) and displayed antiviral activity in vitro (EC50 of 4.5 µM).


AI-suggested references

Link Publication date
Plant-Derived Natural Non-Nucleoside Analog Inhibitors (NNAIs) against RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase Complex (nsp7/nsp8/nsp12) of SARS-CoV-2.
Potentiality of Moringa oleifera against SARS-CoV-2: identified by a rational computer aided drug design method.
Exploring the active constituents of Oroxylum indicum in intervention of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) based on molecular docking method.
The Potential Bioactive Components of Nine TCM Prescriptions Against COVID-19 in Lung Cancer Were Explored Based on Network Pharmacology and Molecular Docking
Identification of potential edible mushroom as SARS-CoV-2 main protease inhibitor using rational drug designing approach
A review of natural products, their effects on SARS-CoV-2 and their utility as lead compounds in the discovery of drugs for the treatment of COVID-19
Network pharmacology and molecular docking analysis on molecular targets and mechanisms of Huashi Baidu formula in the treatment of COVID-19
Crystal structure of SARS-CoV 3C-like protease with baicalein
Unravelling high-affinity binding compounds towards transmembrane protease serine 2 enzyme in treating SARS-CoV-2 infection using molecular modelling and docking studies.
Analysis of the active components and mechanism of Shufeng Jiedu capsule against COVID-19 based on network pharmacology and molecular docking
Anti-SARS-CoV-2 activities in vitro of Shuanghuanglian preparations and bioactive ingredients.
Interaction of 8-anilinonaphthalene-1-sulfonate with SARS-CoV-2 main protease and its application as a fluorescent probe for inhibitor identification.
Leveraging knowledge of Asian herbal medicine and its active compounds as COVID-19 treatment and prevention
Both Baicalein and Gallocatechin Gallate Effectively Inhibit SARS-CoV-2 Replication by Targeting Mpro and Sepsis in Mice
Potential treatment with Chinese and Western medicine targeting NSP14 of SARS-CoV-2.
Medical Education Adjustments Amid COVID-19: UK Medical Students' Views.
Rutin and flavone analogs as prospective SARS-CoV-2 main protease inhibitors: In silico drug discovery study.
Anti-SARS-CoV-2 activities of tanshinone IIA, carnosic acid, rosmarinic acid, salvianolic acid, baicalein, and glycyrrhetinic acid between computational and in vitro insights
Efficient discovery of potential inhibitors for SARS-CoV-2 3C-like protease from herbal extracts using a native MS-based affinity-selection method.
Identifying the molecular targets and mechanisms of xuebijing injection for the treatment of COVID-19 via network pharmacology and molecular docking
Natural Products, Alone or in Combination with FDA-Approved Drugs, to Treat COVID-19 and Lung Cancer.
Review on the potential action mechanisms of Chinese medicines in treating Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)
A VSV-based assay quantifies coronavirus Mpro/3CLpro/Nsp5 main protease activity and chemical inhibition