Adjuvanted SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein

An SARS-CoV-2 immunogen formulation.

Phase of research

Potential treatment - pre-clinical evidence

How it helps


Drug status


Supporting references
Contradictory references
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Clinical trials

General information

Adjuvanted SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein may refer to various formulations of a prefusion-stabilized/trimeric SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein with an adjuvant, which is studied for potential immunization against SARS-CoV-2 (Jangra et al., 2021; Mandolesi et al., 2021; Tong et al., 2021; Wørzner et al., 2021).


Recombinant Trimeric Spike Protein


Supporting references

Link Tested on Impact factor Notes Publication date
Adjuvanted SARS-CoV-2 spike protein elicits neutralizing antibodies and CD4 T cell responses after a single immunization in mice
Protein factor Animal model Mixed substance
Female C57Bl/6 mice 5.74

In contrast to non-adjuvated SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein, the versions adjuvated with aluminium hydroxide, AddaVaxTM (squalene emulsion), or CAF01 (cationic liposome-based adjuvant) elicited immune responses. Neutralizing antibodies and CD4+ Th-cell responses (adjuvant type-dependent) were detected.

Sterilizing Immunity against SARS‐CoV‐2 Infection in Mice by a Single‐Shot and Lipid Amphiphile Imidazoquinoline TLR7/8 Agonist‐Adjuvanted Recombinant Spike Protein Vaccine
Spike protein Animal model Mixed substance
Human ACE2-expressing BALB/c mice 12.96

The formulation with imidoazoquinoline TLR7/8 agonist conjugated with a cholesteryl-polyethylene glycol macromolecular amphiphile (IMDQ-PEG-CHOL) used as an adjuvant provided intramuscularly vaccinated mice with sterilizing immunity against SARS-CoV-2 infection. The Th1 immune response was more potent and efficiently switched towards IgG2a compared to a formulation with AddaVax as an adjuvant. The neutralizing activity of the sera from mice immunized using IMDQ-PEG-CHOL adjuvant was more potent, as well.

Potent Neutralization Antibodies Induced by a Recombinant Trimeric Spike Protein Vaccine Candidate Containing PIKA Adjuvant for COVID-19
Spike protein Protein factor Animal model
C57BL/6 mice; (VSV) SARS-CoV-2 Spike-pseudotyped virus 4.09

A three dose regimen of the vaccine based on trimeric spike protein adjuvanted with polyI:C (PIKA) elicited Spike protein-binding and neutralizing antibody responses in mice. The observed epitope pattern was similar to the one observed for natural infection.

SARS-CoV-2 protein subunit vaccination of mice and rhesus macaques elicits potent and durable neutralizing antibody responses
Spike protein Protein factor Animal model Mixed substance
C57BL/6J mice; rhesus macaques

Adjuvanted (Matrix-M) SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein (a soluble version stabilized in the prefusion conformation) served as a potent immunogen even after a single immunization in mice and rhesus macaques. Boosting was shown in macaques to further enhance the antibody response. The vaccination induced not only Spike binding and neutralizing antibodies which persisted for at least 4 months, but also Spike-specific memory B cells and Th1-biased T helper cells in macaques.


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